AQA Psychology- Psychopathology

Shannon K
Flashcards by Shannon K, updated more than 1 year ago
Shannon K
Created by Shannon K over 3 years ago


A2 Psychology (Psychopathology) Flashcards on AQA Psychology- Psychopathology, created by Shannon K on 05/23/2017.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Definitions of abnormality 1. Statistical Infrequency 2. Deviation from social norms 3. Failure to function adequately 4. Deviation from ideal mental health
Statistical Infrequency An individual has an uncommon characteristic.
Deviation from social norms Behaviour is different to that accepted by society.
Failure to function adequately Someone is unable to cope with daily tasks in everyday life.
Deviation from ideal mental health Occurs when someone does not meet a set criteria (Jahoda , 1958)
Types of phobias 1. Specific 2. Social anxiety 3. Agoraphobia
Specific phobia Phobia of an object, or situation e.g. having an injection.
Social anxiety Phobia of a social situation e.g. public speaking.
Agoraphobia Fear of going outside
Characteristics of phobias Emotional- Anxiety & unreasonable responses Behavioural- Panic, avoidance and endurance Cognitive- Distortions & irrational beliefs
Explaining phobias Behavioural approach. Two-way process model.
Two-way process model Acquisition by classical conditioning. Maintained by operant conditioning.
Evaluation of explanation Incomplete explanation Phobias do not always follow a trauma Positive implications for therapy
Treating phobias 1. Systematic desensitisation 2. Flooding
Systematic desensitisation Three steps 1. Anxiety hierarchy 2. Relaxation 3. Exposure
Anxiety hierarchy List of situations are put in order from least to most frightening, in terms of anxiety.
Relaxation Involves breathing exercises, mental imagery techniques and meditation.
Exposure Takes place across several sessions. Patient is exposed to phobic stimulus whilst in a relaxed state.
Evaluation of systematic desensitisation Effective Acceptable Suitable for a range of patients
Flooding Involves immediate exposure to a phobia. Learn that the phobia is harmless.
Evaluation of flooding Cost effective Less effective for some phobias Traumatic for patients Symptom substitution
Types of depression 1. Major depressive 2. Persistent depressive 3. Disruptive mood dysregulation 4. Premenstrual dysphoric
Major depressive disorder Severe but often short-term.
Persistent depressive disorder Long-term or recurring.
Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder Childhood temper tantrums.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder Disruption prior to/during menstruation.
Characteristics of depression Emotional- Anger, lowered mood & self-esteem Behavioural- Aggression, lowered activity levels Cognitive- Poor concentration & negative thinking.
Explaining depression Cognitive approach. 1. Beck's cognitive theory 2. Ellis' ABC Model
Beck's cognitive theory 1. Faulty information processing 2. Negative self-schemas 3. Negative triad
Faulty information processing Focus on negative aspects and ignores the positive.
Negative self-schemas Interpret information about themselves negatively.
Negative triad Negative view of: The world The future The self
Evaluation of explanation- Beck Good supporting evidence Practical application Incomplete explanation
Ellis' ABC Model A- Activating event B- Beliefs C- Consequences
Activating event Experience a negative event which triggers irrational beliefs e.g. failing a test.
Beliefs MUSTurbation- Must achieve perfection Utopianism- Life is always meant to be fair
Consequences Triggers irrational beliefs which can cause depression.
Evaluation of explanation- Ellis Partial explanation Practical application Incomplete explanation
Treating depression 1. CBT- Beck 2. REBT- Ellis
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Challenge negative thoughts, and test the reality of these thoughts.
Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy Change irrational beliefs. Empirical arguments and logical arguments.
Evaluation of treatments Success may be due to relationship Effective May not work on severe cases Overemphasis on cognition
Types of OCD 1. OCD 2. Trichotillomania 3. Hoarding disorder 4. Excoriation disorder
Obsessive-compulsive disorder Characterised by obsessions (recurring thoughts) and compulsions (repetitive behaviours).
Trichotillomania Compulsive hair pulling.
Hoarding disorder The inability to part with anything, regardless of its value.
Excoriation disorder Compulsive skin picking.
Characteristics of OCD Emotional- Anxiety, guilt, depression and distress Behavioural- Repetitive compulsions and avoidance Cognitive- Obsessive thoughts and cognitive strategies
Explaining OCD Biological approach. 1. Genetic explanations 2. Neural explanations
Genetic explanations Genes are involved in the vulnerability of OCD- Candidate genes. It is polygenic, so can be caused by more than one gene.
Evaluation of genetic explanation Supporting evidence- Nestadt et al Environmental risks Too many candidate genes Twin studies are flawed
Neural explanations The role of serotonin- Regulates mood Impaired decision making- especially in hoarding systems.
Evaluation of neural explanations Some supporting evidence Unclear what mechanisms are involved May be a symptom, not a cause
Treating OCD 1. SSRIs 2. Tricyclics 3. SNRIs
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor 20mg fluoxetine. Increases serotonin levels in the brain. Often used alongside CBT.
Tricyclic Antidepressants- Clomipramine. Same effect as SSRIs
Serotonin-Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitor Used when patients do not respond to SSRI. Increases adrenaline as well as serotonin.
Evaluation of treatments Drugs can have side effects. Cost effective, and tackles symptoms. Unreliable evidence. OCD may follow a trauma.
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