Biology Review: Genetic Code

aliking
Flashcards by aliking, updated more than 1 year ago
aliking
Created by aliking almost 7 years ago
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MCAT Flashcards on Biology Review: Genetic Code, created by aliking on 05/21/2014.

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Question Answer
Amino Acid The building block of proteins.
Codon A three-nucleotide sequence in an mRNA sequence. Used to specify an amino acid.
Degenerate Term used to describe the genetic code. Means that more than one codon can specify for a single amino acid.
Extragenic supression A type of mutation that occurs outside of the genetic code, but has an effect on the amino acid sequence that is translated from the genetic code.
Frameshift mutation One class of genetic code mutation that results from the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide to an mRNA sequence. Results in a new reading frame.
Genetic Code The series of codons that make up an organism's DNA.
Intragenic suppression A type of mutation that occurs within the genetic code to suppress a different mutation.
Missense mutation One class of genetic code mutation that results from the substitution of one base group for another in a codon. Results in the change of the amino acid for which the codon specifies.
Mutation An error in the genetic code caused most often by a the incorrect substitution, insertion, or deletion of a nucleotide.
Nonsense mutation One class of genetic code mutation that results from the substitution of one base group for another in a codon. Results in a stop codon, a codon that can no longer be recognized by tRNA molecules.
Reading frame One of three possible ways of grouping an mRNA sequence by threes to yield an amino acid sequence.
Silent Mutation A substitution base mutation that changes a codon, but because of degeneracy does not change the amino acid that codon specifies.
Suppressor mutation A type of genetic code mutation that alters the result of a different mutation. Can be either extragenic or intragenic.
Synonyms Codons that code for the same amino acid.
True reversion One type of suppression mutation that leads to the restoration of the natural genetic code sequence.
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