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emily balmbra
Flashcards by emily balmbra, updated more than 1 year ago
emily balmbra
Created by emily balmbra over 3 years ago
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A level geography (coasts ) Flashcards on key terms cue cards , created by emily balmbra on 06/14/2017.

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Question Answer
what is population density? the average number of people living in a specific area - km2
what is population distribution? the pattern of where people live - local and global scales
what are zonal soils? soil which has experienced the max effect of climate and natural veg on the parent rock - assuming no extreme weathering, relief or drainage
Define intensive farming What are the two types of farming that can be employed? Intensive faming is small scale 1. capital = money is invested and improvements in technology and pest control and machinery to allow a high output per hectare and per worker; few ppl employed 2. labour intensive = large amount of ppl employed - large output per hectare but not per person.
what is extensive farming? large scale farming over a large area- even though theres a low labour force theres high cap input e.g good qual seeds. others have low labour force and rely on lots of land to = good output
what is productivity compared to agricultural productivity? PRODUCTIVITY = measure of the economic performance of agriculture and an important driver of farm incomes AGRICULTURAL = measured in the yield, TFP = ration of inputs to output
How does TFO improve its crop improvement? 1. higher yield crops 2. disease resistant crops 3. technology to know how much water and fertiliser to use
How does TFP improve with improved life stock techniques? 1. better animal care 2. high qual feeds = better health 3. chose those with good genetic quality
what are the 5 main things that soils are useful for? 1. cycling nutrients - C, N, P 2. regulating water - helps to control where rain, irrigation water goes 3. sustaining plant and animal life - diversity and productivity of living things = dependant on living things 4. filtering and buffering pollutants - minerals and microbes = responsible for immobilising organic and inorganic materials 5. stability and support = soil = a medium for plant roots
What are the 4 strategies to ensure food security? 1.Availability - theres a reliable and consistent supply of food 2. Access - people have sufficient resources to produce and purchase food 3. stability - people ability to access and utilise food remains stable 4. utilisation - people have knowledge and sanitation to prepare food in a way thats good for their health
Define the epidemiological transition assumes that infectious diseases are replaced by chronic ones as an area becomes more developed - due to the expanded public health and sanitation
what is meant by the term health? according to the WHO its a complete state of physical, mental and social wellbeing with the absence of disease.
what is the difference between morbidly and mortality? morbidity relate to illness and disease - also used to describe incidences of disease, some like malaria by law have to be reported. on the other hand, mortality relates to death, measured by death rate - due to the morbidity (this is how they link together)
what is the defining difference between non-commnicable disease and communicable disease? non-communicable disease is a medical condition that is non-infectious and non-transmissive between people
what is the difference between natural change and net migration change? natural change = the difference between the birth rates and death rates but net migration change = the difference between the total average on immigrants and emigrants in an area/country over a given period.
what is net replacement rate? the total number of children each woman needs to have to maintain the current pop - measure of fertility rate. if fertility = above replacement then pop will grow.
what is this importance of infant mortality rates? 1. its age specific = relates to one group that vulnerable - can show a dependancy ratio 2. indication of health care in the pop, espesh post and prenatal care and the ability to combat disease 3. it will have an impact of fertility rates, higher infant mortality = higher fertility rates
Name one country that would fit into each stage of the DTM, what stage does natural increase occur? what stage dies natural decrease occur? stage 1 = remote areas stage 2 = gambia - natural increase stage 3 = brazil stage 4 = USA stage 5 = germany - natural decrease
what is "demographic dividend"? the benefit a country gets when it outgrows its dependants such as the elderly and the young- boost in economic productivity
whats the difference between a refugee and an asylum seeker? An asylum seeker is someone who has filed their country of origin and applied for asylum under the 1951 convention they they're fleeing persecution and cannot return, they're waiting for their application to e accepted. A refugee is someone who is main fleeing war or conflict but not fleeing persecution, legally an refugee is an asylum seeker who's application has been accepted.
What is an economic migrant? a person who has left their country seeking work in another, either legally to illegally.
what is biotic potential? in pop ecology = the natural reproductive potential of a species
what is meant by environmental resistant in terms of ecological footprint? explains mortality rates controlled by environmental factors that prevent survival e.g food shortage
how are carrying capacity and over shoot linked together? carrying capacity is the maximum pop size that an area/ env can sustain. overshoot refers to the point when the pop and consumption exceed carrying capacity of its environment.
define the total productive bio-capacity ALL the food, water and energy resources produced by the earths natural systems annually to sustain us
what are the two main reasons for pop change? natural change - the difference between the crude death rate and crude birth rate - BR = above DR migration change - population will grow if the number of immigrants moving in exceeds those of emigrants moving out
give examples of cultural control of fertility rates to describe their influence on the population of the area. For example in the UK having many children used to be desired and used to be normal but not the affluence of the area has increased they have come less desirable due to being expensive, wanting to spend time with children they do have and also contraception being more available. CHINA - in china the once child policy was introduced by the gov as a control of the pop growth but it become part of the culture as even now when the policy has relaxed a bit 40% of the pop still only have one child. but this is mainly due to economic ressons
give examples of areas that experience changes to their population due to gender, religion and marriage traditions? Gender - china = want bosy = increase FR; have children until thy get a boy Religion - some don't allow for contraception - catabolism marriage traditions - Africa children can marry under the age of 18 = more time to have children also status of woman, if not allowed access to education they will have more children
in ecology when will the population grow? when biotic potential is greater then environmental resistance
what is biotic potential and how does it link to environmental resistance ? the natural reproductive potential of a species, env resistance links to mortality and is factors in the environment hat cause deaths and decreases survival.
what limits the growth of the population as the density dependancy grows food and resource supply due to there being a larger population that needs to be supported by the same amount f resources
link over, under and optimum population together Over population is where there is to many people in the pop to be supported by the resources available - increasing the pop any more will decrease the standard of living. underpop - there arent enough people to utilise the resources available to them optimum pop = there an ideal balance between the population and the resources available, they're used most effectively and the best standard of living is reached.
what does ecological footprint represent? the total generation of waste and and consumption by humans compared to the bio-productivity
What are a few of the negative impacts of increasing the ecological footprint? 1. climate change - global warming - more FF burnt - increasing atmospheric CO2 2. Fish stock depletion - over fishing to provide food for the increasing pop 3. increased threat of extinction 4. overgrazing - damage to soil; need to produce more food - negative feedback; will eventually decrese the crop production; soils arent as fertile.
give an example of positive feedback relating to ecological footprint As pop grows = more agricultural output because more can work on the farm = more people to discover technologies, find resources - enhancing survival. but as pop increases too far then becomes a neg feedback; of soil depletion and disruption to the carbon cycle
give an example of a negative feedback relating to ecological footprint? increased use of fossil fuels increase the ability to produce food; supplies energy for technology and machinery but increases the global temps; of enhanced GH effect - changing rainfall patters and drought may then lead to crop production falling.
What where the views of Malthus on pop growth? stated that pop growth has a limit determined by food production and environment Pessimistic - he started that food production rates cannot keep up with the growth rates of pop - food per head declines - he stated that pop would increases until 2050 and then decline. POSATIVE CHECKS: INCREASED DEATHS THROUGH WAR ANF FAMINE. NEGATIVE CHECKS: MORAL RESTRAINT - CELIBALY
what are the view of boserup and simon? they view that population growth can increase resource availability by the advances in technology and innovating resources. it could increase carrying capacity so much the it can support a larger population.
what evidence supports his view? 1. Crop lands importing 2.food increases as fast as pop increases 3. water has improved 3. air in rich countries is better and safer to breathe
what are the two types of zonal soils? chernozem and latosols soils
describe chernozem soils deep black soils, rich in organic matter - found in north American such places as Russia - allow for farming through the winter and the spring - found in continental climates. Their topography (the arrangement of physical and natural features of an area) and high natural fertility attract modern farming.
describe latolos soils Occur in wet humid climates - appear to be very fertile but alot of the organic matter is store in the veg. best way of farming is the shift cultivation - people clear land and ad burn it to make fertile soils
What are the reagents that error soil? WIND AND WATER
How does the water erode soil? 1. river bank erosion - soil is washed away by unmanaged rivers as they meander across flood plain 2. Rill erosion - when the rainwater does'nt infiltrate is flows down hill forming rills 3. Sheet erosion - raindrops loosen the topsoil and moves the tonsil down hill in a sheet like fashion 4. Gully erosion - when rills are unattended they become larger and crops are not able to be grown - hazard for farm machinery.
How does the wind erode the soil? 1.Salinisation - suspended particles ar picked up by the wind and then fall back down - picked up about 0.5-0.1mm - effectively bounce along the surface 2. creep - soil particles become lose and due to gravity and being to large to be picked ups by the wind the wind moves them downhill 3. Suspension - small particles are lifted about 0.1mm about the ground small particles such as dust. the sediment then settles on the ground 4. Abrasion and attrition - suspended particles cause abrasion on particles as they hit the surface, also hit other particles and break them up - attrition
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