Social Work Bachelor's Exam study

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Social Work Bachelor's Exam Flashcards on Social Work Bachelor's Exam study, created by shensinger on 05/17/2013.
shensinger
Flashcards by shensinger, updated more than 1 year ago
shensinger
Created by shensinger about 11 years ago
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Question Answer
123. Human behavior is the result of individuals adapting to their environments
124. The Ego ( Ego Psychology) Believe that the ego is the portion of the personality that is responsible for human behavior. It has the ability to function Autonomously
125. Ego Pyschology has 12 major Functions Reality testing, Judgment, Sense of Reality, Regulation and Control of Drives and Impluses, Object Relations, Thought Processes, Adaptive Regression, Defensive Functioning, Stimulus Barrier, Autonomous Functions, Mastery- Competence, Integrative Functioning
126. Reality Testing ability to differentiate between accurate perceptions of the self and the environmen
127. Judgement ability to identify and weigh the consequences of a behavior before acting
128. Sense of Reality ability to not only perceive things accurately but to experience them that way as well
129. Regulation and Control of Drives and Impulses ability to control drives, impulses and affect in accordance with reality
130. Object Relations Ability to interact with others
131. Thought Processes ability to have goal-directed, organized, and realistic thoughts
132. Adaptive Regression ability to let go of reality and experiences aspects of the self that ordinarily are inaccessible
133. Defensive Functioning ability to use unconscious mechanisms to reduce anxiety and painful experiences
134. Stimulus Barrier ability to maintain current level of functioning despite increases and decreases in stimulation
135. Autonomous Functions Presence of certain, conflict-free functions that are capable of functioning continuously, e.g. learning, memory, perception, and concentration
136. Mastery Competence ability to successfully interact with the environment
137. Integrative Functioning ability to integrate parts of the personality to resolve conflict
Who developed Ego Psychology? Heinz Hartmann
Ego Psychology Focuses on the Ego portion of the Personality and its relationship to other aspects of the persoality and the external world. Having the ability to ADAPT to social environments
Adaptation is the reciprocal relationship between individuals and the environment: "changing the environment or being changed by it"
Alloplastic Behavior changing the environment in order to adapt
Autoplastic Behavior changing one's own behavior or self in order to adapt.
Who developed ego Psycholigy? Heinz Hartmann
Is Ego Psychology Psychoanalytic? yes
what does ego psychology focus on? the ego portion of the personality and its relationship to other aspects of the personality and the externam world
What is the premise of ego psychology? the belief that individuals have the ability to adapt to thier social environments
what process does ego psychology focus on? adaptaion
adaptation the reciprocal relationship between individuals and their envirnoment, which involves changing the environment or being changed by it
substitution replacing on feeling or emotion with another
From about age ____ to puberty, a child enters the _____ stage. 6, Latency
genital stage 12 yrs. to adulthood - learning to accept genitalia and to experience mature, adult-like feelings
Who developed the concept of defense mechanisms? Anna Freud
denial Unconscious refusal to admit an unacceptable idea or behavior Mr. Davis, who is alcohol-dependent, believes that he can control his drinking if he so desires
repression Unconscious and involuntary forgetting of painful ideas, events, and conflicts Ms. Young, a victim of incest, no longer remembers the reason she always hated the uncle who molested her.
suppression Conscious exclusion from awareness anxiety-producing feelings, ideas, and situations Ms. Ames states to the nurse that she is not ready to talk about her recent divorce.
Rationalization Conscious or unconscious attempts to make or prove that one's feelings or behaviors are justifiable Mr. Jones, diagnosed with schizophrenia, states that he cannot go to work because his co-workers are mean, instead of admitting that his illness interferes with working
intellectualization Consciously or unconsciously using only logical explanations without feelings or an affective component Ms. Mann talks about her son's death from cancer as being merciful and shows no signs of her sadness and anger.
dissociation The unconscious separation of painful feelings and emotions from an unacceptable idea, situation, or object Ms. Adams recalls that when she was sexually molested as a child, she felt as if she were outside of her body watching what was happening without feeling anything.
identification Conscious or unconscious attempt to model oneself after a respected person Ms. Kelly states to the nurse, "When I get out of the hospital, I want to be a nurse just like you."
introjection Unconsciously incorporating values and attitudes of others as if they were your own Without realizing it, Mr. Chad wishes, talks, and acts similarly to his therapist, analyzing other patients.
compensation Consciously covering up for a weakness by overemphasizing or making up a desirable trait Mr. Hahn, who is depressed and unable to share his feelings with other patients, writes and becomes known for his expressive poetry.
sublimation Consciously or unconsciously channeling instinctual drives into acceptable activities Mr. Smith, a former perpetrator of incest who fears relapse, forms a local chapter of Sex Addicts Anonymous.
reaction formation A conscious behavior that is the exact opposite of an unconscious feeling Ms. Wren, who unconsciously wishes her mother were dead, continuously tells staff that her mother is wonderful.
undoing Consciously doing something to counteract or make up for a transgression or wrongdoing After accidentally eating another patient's cookies, Ms. Donnelly apologizes to the patients, cleans the refrigerator, and labels everyone's snack with their names.
displacement Unconsciously discharging pent-up feelings to a less threatening object A husband comes home after a bad day at work and yells at his wife.
projection Unconsciously (or consciously) blaming someone else for one's difficulties or placing one's unethical desires on someone else An adolescent comes home late from a dance and states that her date would not bring her home on time
conversion The unconscious expression of intrapsychic conflict symbolically through physical symptoms A student awakens with a migraine headache the morning of a final examination and feels too ill to take the test. She does not realize that 2 hours of cramming left her unprepared.
regression Unconscious return to an earlier and more comfortable developmental level. A 6 y/o child has been wetting the bed at night since the birth of his baby sister
Flight of ideas (thought process) Speech pattern demonstrated by a rapid transition from topic to topic, frequently without completing any of the preceding ideas; prominent in manic states.
associative looseness (thought process) Thinking process characterized by speech in which ideas shift from one unrelated subject to another. The individual is unaware that the topics are unconnected.
Circumstantiality (thought process) Indirect speech that is delayed in reaching the point but eventually gets from original point to desired goal. Pretty much beating around the bush.
Tangentiality (thought process) Inability to have goal-directed associations of thought; speaker never gets from point to desired goal
Neologisms (thought process) Made-up words that typically have only meaning to the individual who uses them. Noted in some type of schizophrenia.
Concrete thinking (thought process) use of literal meaning without ability to consider abstract meaning ( e.g. dont cry over spilled milk might be misinterpreted as meaning okay ill cry over the sink)
Clang associations (thought process) words similar in sound but not in meaning; words have no logical connection; may include rhyming and punning.
Word Salad (thought process) Incoherent mixture of words and phrases
Perseveration (thought process) Psychopathologic repetition of the same word or idea in response to different question
Echolalia (thought process) Psychopathologic repeating of words or phrases of one person by another, noted in types of schizophrenia
Catalepsy (Behavioral) a trancelike state with loss of voluntary motion and failure to react to stimuli
Compulsion (behavior) Uncontrollable impulse to perform an act or ritual repeatedly; might be an obsession as in ocd. the act or ritual serves to decrease anxiety.
persecutory (delusions) A delusion in which the central theme is that one (or someone to whom one is close) is being attacked, harassed, cheated, persecuted, or conspired against.
Grandiose (delusions) grand in an impressive or stately way; marked by pompous affection or grandeur, absurdly exaggerated. example would be, Patient states that i am George washington
Reference (delusions) False belief that the behavior of others in the environment refers to oneself; derived from ideas of reference in which one wrongly believes that he or she is being talked about.
Nihilistic (delusions) False belief that the self, part of the self, or another object has ceased to exist.
Paranoia oversuspiciousness leading to persecutory delusion
Phobias exaggerated, pathologic dread or fear of some specific type of stimulus or situation
oral stage During the ____ Stage, the mouth the site of sexual and aggressive gratification?
confabulation (memory) unconscious filling of gaps in memory with imagined or untrue experiences that the person believes but have no basis in reality.
What is the age range for the Oral Stage of development? 0-1 year
As an adult, John is extremely sarcastic, bites his nails, chews tobacco and smokes cigars. He may be ______ fixated. orally
idealization form of denial in which the object of attention is presented as "all good" masking true negative feelings toward the other
During the ____ Stage, the anus is the most sexualized part of the body. anal
A person is ____ ______ if they are obsessive or perfectionistic. Anal retentive
inversion refocusing of aggression or emotions evoked from an external force onto one's self.
Sally is thought of as ____ ______, due to her carelessness and disorganized room. anal explosive
The _____ stage, is a period of heightened genital sensitivity. A child's sexualized activity is directed at both sexes and at self-stimulation. Phallic
Between ___ - ____ years of age is the Phallic Stage of development. 3-6
isolation inabillity to simultaneously experience the cognitive and affective compoenents of a situation.
The ____ complex in boys, is shown in a marked sexualized attraction to the mother to the exclusion of the father. (Same sex parent becomes a fantasized rival) Oedipal
The ___ complex in girls, is exhibited by a marked sexualized attraction to the father to the exclusion of the mother. (Same sex parent becomes a fantasized rival) Electra
somatization manifestation of emotional anxiety into physical symptoms.
During the _____ Stage, no new significant conflicts or impulses arise; sexual feelings dormant. Latency
splitting repressing, dissociting or disconnecting important feelings that are "dangerous" to psychic well-being. Causes person to get ot of touch with her/his feelings andleads to feelings of a "fragmented self."
according to the psychoanalytic theory, what are behaviours and thoughts driven by? unconscious forces, motives, and drives
according to the psychoanalytic theory, all behaviors serve what? some underlying, covert purpose
what do psychoanalysts believe that behaviors are shaped by? repressed childhood memories and experiences
what is repression in the psychoanalytic theory? thoughts and ideas that create anxiety or distress are pushed from the conscious to the unconcsiousness
in the Structual Theory of Personality Development (STPD), what 3 major systems does the personality consist of? Id, ego, and superego
what does the Id consist of? basic instinctual drives, the most basic of which is the Libido (sexual)
in the STPD what is the most primitive portion of the personality? the ID
In the STPD, what portion of the personality are children born with? the ID
describe the ID in the STPD? children are able to focus on the immediate fulfillment of their most basic needs, i.e., hunger, thirst
what principle does the ID follow? the Pleasure Principle; it only acts to seek pleasure and avoid pain
what happens as the EGO developes? a child's need for immediate gratification and fulfillment is delayed, it mediates between the demands of the individaus and the often conflicting demands of the environment
in the STPD what is the Reality Principle? the ability that developes that allows a child to recognize that his/her desire for immediate gratifcation must be compromised for the realities of the environment
In the STPD, what is the most sophisticated portion of the personality? the Superego
what is the Superego? the part of the personality that allows an individual to act out of need, and to consider the moral and ethical aspects of behavior
what are the two aspects of the superego? 1. conscience - "should nots" 2. ego ideal - "shoulds"
when the id, ego, and superego are not harmonious and unified, what is said to have occurred? maladjustment or mentally disturbance
according to Freud, when should perosnality development be complete? by the age of 5
cathexis the urging force - it drives an individual's unconscious wishes and desires
anti-cathexis the checking force in the psychoanalytic theory. acts as the breaks on the imprudent actions of the ID and serves to keep repressed material in the unconscious
according to Freudm what are the two major events that develope personality? 1. maturation and natural growth 2. learning to overcome frustration, avoid pain, reslove conflict, and reduce anxiety.
five sequential Psychosexual Stages of Developmnet 1. oral 2. anal 3. phallic 4. latency 5. genital
according to the Psychoanalytic theory, moving from one stage to the next is dependent on what? the successful resolution of the conflicts presented in the immediately preceding stage. failure to resolve a stage or fixation can result in pathology.
fixation the partial or complete cessation of personality development at one of the Psychosexual stages of development. can happen in teh individual's needs at a particular stage are under- or over- gratified
regression occurs when gratification at a particular is over frustrating. a return to an earlier stage of development.
Oedipus Complex during the phallic stage. a boy becomes jealous of his father and completes for the mother's affection, attention, and love.
castration theory the fear that a father may remove the offending organ.
Electra Complex unconscious sexual attraction that a girl (usually the ages of 3 - 7) has for her father. Girl becomes aware she does not have male sex organs, feels inferior, and blames her mother
optimistic individuals can change their their personality
pessimistic individuals are doomed to remain the same
physisological individuals are pushed by their physiological needs for water, food and sexual activity
pessimistic individuals are doomed to remain the same
physiological individuals are pushed by their physiological needs for water, food and sexua activity
purposive motivation individuals are pulled by the purposes, goals, values, beliefs and attitudes
conscious individuals are aware of their motivation to act
unconscious individuals are not aware of their motivation to act
stage individuals go through pre-determined stages of development
non-stage individuals do not go through pre-determined stages of development
cultural determinism individuals are molded by their culture
cultural transcendance individuals are not determined by their culture
early personality formation individuals develop their personality early in life and remain relatively fixed throughout the lifespan
late personality formation inviduals continue to develop their personalities later in life or throughout their lifespan
What do psychodynamic theories describe? the intrpsychic processes involved in personality development
what do psychodynamic theories emphasize? the importance of childhood experiences on psychosocial development
who founded the psychoanalytic theory? Sigmund Freud
Name the three levels of consciousness that Freud described in the psychoanalytic theory. 1) Conscious 2) Pre-conscious 3) Unconscious
In the psychoanalytic theory, what does the conscious level consit of? those thoughts and ideas of which we are aware
in the psychoanalytic theory what does the pre-conscious level consist of? those thoughts and ideas of which we are not aware, but are easily accessible
in the psychoanalytic theory, what does the unconscious level consist of? those thoughts and ideas of which we are unaware and cannot access
what level of consciousness does the psychoanalytic theory focus on? the unconscious
Freedom individuals have control over their behavior
determinism behavior is determined by forces oustide of an individual's control
nature behavior is attributed to genetics and biology
nurture behavior is the result of the effects of the environment
uniqueness individuals are all unique
universality individuals are basically similar in nature
active individuals act through their own initiative
reactive individuals react to outside stimuli
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