ESL Methods

April Hollingsworth
Flowchart by April Hollingsworth, updated more than 1 year ago
April Hollingsworth
Created by April Hollingsworth almost 2 years ago


An overview of the three major models of ESL instruction

Resource summary

Flowchart nodes

  • SIOP (Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol)
  • CALLA (Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach)
  • CLD students must become proficient in academic language in order to be successful in the classroom. This does not mean they must learn English prior to attending content-based classes. Instead, instructional methods which deliver both content and language simultaneously best meet the needs of these students.
  • ICB ​​(Integrated Content-Based)
  • a descendant of "Language Across the Curriculum" uses themed units and "whole language" keeps students engaged through authentic, hands-on activities
  • language is learned in the context of the academic content Based on the communicative approach which states that learning language comes from being required to communicate real meaning.
  • focuses on the academic, social, and emotional needs of second language learners by leveling the playing field to provide equitable content delivery
  • adds higher-order thinking to the communicative approach
  • hands-on activities guarded vocabulary visuals cooperative learning
  • explicitly teaches higher-order thinking skills in the context of the content rather than as a separate subject that focuses too much on drills and worksheets students are mentally active teaches strategies for students to use later students become self-monitors and are in charge of their own learning
  • PLAN select a theme choose topics set content and language objections gather materials set the environment INSTRUCT pre-teach vocabulary build background knowledge integrate literacy engage students integrate collaborative learning ASSESS formative summative
  • Lesson Preparation Interaction Building Background Practice and Application Comprehensible Input Lesson Delivery Strategies Review and Assessment
  • Preparation Presentation Practice Evaluation Expansion
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