AS chemistry unit 2 - reactions between functional groups

Ffion Jones
Flowchart by Ffion Jones, updated more than 1 year ago
Ffion Jones
Created by Ffion Jones almost 3 years ago
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AS level Chemistry Flowchart on AS chemistry unit 2 - reactions between functional groups, created by Ffion Jones on 04/23/2017.
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Resource summary

Flowchart nodes

  • Alkane
  • halogenoalkane
  • Polyalkene
  • alcohol
  • Aldehyde
  • Ketone
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Nitrile
  • Alkene
  • Ester
  • free radical substitution
  • UV/Sunlight,Cl2
  • Nucleophilic substitution
  • NaOH/KOH
  • Elimination
  • NaOH & Ethanol heated under reflux
  • HX
  • Electrophilic addition
  • dehydration (elimination)
  • Conc H2SO4 at 170*C/ gaseous alcohol over heated Al2O3
  • Hydration (cracking)
  • reversible reaction, so 300*C, 60-70 atm, phosphoric acid catalyst
  • 1* alcohol only - Oxidation
  • Distillation with acidified potassium dichromate (aq potassium dichromate & sulfuric acid)
  • Reflux continuously with K2Cr2O7/H+
  • 2* alcohol only - Oxidation
  • Reflux with Cr2O7*2-/H+
  • Other oxidising agent - acidified potassium manganate
  • Addition Polymerisation
  • Salt
  • Neutralisation 
  • Acid + Base -> Salt + WaterAcid + Carbonate -> Salt + water + carbon dioxide 
  • Chemical test- Carbonates & hydrogen carbonates
  • Esterification
  • carboxylic acid + alcohol -> ester + water
  • conc H2SO4 (catalyst) & Heat under reflux
  • Nucleophilic substitution
  • NaCN/KCN
  • Heated under reflux
  • Chemical tests- Bromine water- Brown to colourless as the Br2 adds to the double bondAcidified potassium Manganate KMnO4- Purple solution becomes colourless
  • Chemical test-  sodium hydroxide added to release ions. Nitric acid neutralises excess acid. Aqueous silver nitrate added
  • Catalytic hydrogenation 
  • 150*C & Nickel catalyst (platinum not used because of cost
  • Oxidation
  • Chlorine - white pptBromine- Cream pptIodine - yellow ppt
  • Chemixal test to distinguish between different types of alcohol- Potassium dichromate turns from orange to green when oxidised
  • Primary alcohol - can be oxidised Twice. Alcohol -> Aldehyde -> Carboxylic acidd
  • Secondary alcohol - oxidised once. Alcohol ->  Ketone
  • Tertiary alcohol - No oxidation
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