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The French Revolution
4 ESO Giza (My Mindmaps) Mind Map on The French Revolution, created by Aritz Ibarra on 08/11/2013.
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The French Revolution
The causes of the French Revolution
The influence of the Enlightenment
French intellectuals and the bourgeoisie supported Enlightenment ideas and tried to put them into practice. Free and equal under the law.
The political crisis
In France, the Estates General brought together representatives of the three estates of the realm to advise the king.
The economic crisis
The goverment expend a lot of money in the military forces and the intend to increase the taxes.
The social crisis
The beginning of the Modern Age
The points that marked the begining of the Modern Age
A political revolution ended the Ancient Regime in France
In Spain, the first steps towards a new political, economic and social order.
Introducing new habits and customs.
Art reflected the political, economic and social changes of the time.
The outbreak in 1789
Before the French Revolution, enlightened despot failed
Major events of the French Revolution
The National Assembly
Third Estate proposed, one vote for each representative
The king refused
Third estate declared themselves the representatives of the nation
They formed a National Assembly
They demanded a constitution
The Constituent Assembly
The king agreed to the demans
Constituen Assembly was elected to write a constitution
On 14 July 1789, they attacked the Bastille
They abolished the Declaration od the Rights of Man and the Citizen
The king worried tried to escape to Austria to ask for help, but the revolutionaries discovered the king´s plans and prevented his escape
In 1791, the Constituent Assenbly adopted a constitution
The Legislative Assembly
A new Legislative Assembly was elected
Two groups dominated this assembly
Belived in the revolution, became more moderate. To mantain limited suffrage
Also believed in the revolution, became more moderate, to mantain limited suffrage.
Louis XVI opposed the reforms of the Leislative Assembly and asked Austria for support.
The king, abolished the monarchy and declarated France a republic.
Louis XVI was accused of treason and then executed.
European countries declared the war to france to prevent the spred of the recolution.
Under the leadership of Robespierre, the jacobins imposed the dictatorship, known as the Terror
The Directory and the Consulate
By 1795, they established the Directory.
The Directory was a more conservative goverment.
In 1799, Framce was still at war with other European powers
In response, General Napoleon Bonaparte organised a militar goverment.
A new form of goverment called the Consulate
Napoleon himself as head of state and First Consul
From Revolution to empire
Napoleon then declared himself Emperor of France in 1804.
He established the Civil Code, that was applied equally to all citizens.
However, from 1812 onwards, his power began to decline becouse he had to divide his forces between two very distant fronts
Was finally defeted in 1815 at the Battle of Wateloo
The consecuences of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Empire
New forms of goverment, such as constitutional monarchies and republics
New constitutions on popular sovereignty, separation of powers
New constitutions, limited male suffrage
Elections led to the emergence of political groups
All citizens now had to pay taxes. Nobility and clergy also
New laws guaranteed private property rights.
Free trade was also guaranteed, which benefied middle-class merchants
Empire was the crisis and ultimate disintegration of the Ancient Regime
Ancien Regime, the estates system ceased to exist.
Spain: occupation and liberation
In 1788, Carlos IV became King of Spain.
Napoleon´s occupation of Spain
In 1805, French and Spanish forces were defeted in Trafalgar, by the British
In 1807, Spain signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau with France
In the end, the French forces occupied Spain and sent Carlos IV and his son Fernando to Bayonne
Joseph Bonaparte, the new King of Spain in 1808
War of Independence began on 2 May 1808, when the people of Mardrid rose up against the French occupation.
During this war, two important processes were taking place at the same time
At first, the Spanish forces won some victories, such as the Battle of Bailen.
Cadiz was the only city that did not fall to French
The French were finally defeated in 1813, thanks to British suport
The political revolution
During the war two separate goverments coexisted in spain
Joseph Bonaparte imposed the Bayonne Constitution, which included enlightened reforms
Joseph Bonaparte had some Spanish supporters, who were called afrancesados
The Central Council represented the absent Fernando VII in the areas not occupied by the French
On 19 March 1812 established the following principles:
Constitutional monarchy as the form of goverment
Popular sovereignty with limited male suffrage
Catholicism as the state religion
The separatioon of powers into three branches:
Guaranteed rights and freedoms:
Equality under the law
The right to privacy
Freedom of the press and the prohibition of torture.
Life during the revolution
Marriage became civil union, and divorce was legalised
Recognised the rights of children who were born outside of marriage
The revolutionaries rejected the traditional calendar, with its Christmas holidays
The months of the year were given new names that reflected meteorological conditions
Revolutionary leaders opposed women´s participation in politics
Overall, women continued to be limited to domestic roles
Many women participated in the revolution and demanded the right to vote
France adopted the metric system of measurement
Napoleon´s army used carriages as ambulances
French troops kept their food in metal tins to keep it fresh
The empire style and Goya
Spain: Francisco de Goya (1746-1828)
Was a court painter. His experiences were duting the War of Independence
Neoclassic: the empire style
Architecture: Commemorative arches and colums, similar to Roman style
Sculpture: Made with white marble, represented mythological or famous people
Painting: historical and mythological themes. Also portraits
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