Industrial Revolution


Mind Map on Industrial Revolution, created by Sebastian Martinez A on 11/13/2013.
Sebastian Martinez A
Mind Map by Sebastian Martinez A, updated more than 1 year ago
Sebastian Martinez A
Created by Sebastian Martinez A over 9 years ago

Resource summary

Industrial Revolution
  1. The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain
    1. Expansion of farmland, good weather, improved transportation, and new crops such as the potato dramatically increased the food supply.
      1. the increased food supply, the population grew
        1. supply of money, or capital, to invest in new machines and factories. Entrepreneurs found new business opportunities and new ways to make profits.
          1. natural resources were plentiful in Britain.
            1. British ships could transport goods anywhere in the world
              1. population growth and cheaper food at home, domestic markets increased.
              2. Cotton Production and New Factories
                1. Great Britain had surged far ahead in the production of inexpensive cotton goods.
                  1. spinners made cotton thread from raw cotton into cloth on looms.
                    1. This production method was thus called a cottage industry.
                    2. In1764 James Hargreaves invented a machine called the spinning jenny,
                      1. That make the spinning process much faster
                      2. in 1787 Edmund Cartwright invented the water-powered loom
                        1. it possible for the weaving of cloth to catch up with the spinning of thread.
                        2. . In 1782 Watt made changes that enabled the engine to drive machinery
                          1. Steam power could now be used to spin and weave cotto
                            1. steam engines were fired by coal, not powered by water, they did not need to be located near rivers.
                          2. In 1760 Britain had imported 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton
                            1. 1840, 366 million pounds of cotton were imported each year
                          3. Factory owners wanted to use their new machines constantly
                            1. workers were forced to work in shifts to keep the machines producing
                          4. Coal, Iron, and Railroads
                            1. The steam engine was crucial
                              1. the engine depended on coal, which seemed then to be unlimited in quantity
                              2. Britain's natural resources included large supplies of iron ore
                                1. In 1780 Henry Cort developed a process called puddling
                                  1. used to burn away impurities in crude iron, called pig iron, and to produce an iron of high quality.
                                  2. In 1740 Britain had produced 17,000 tons
                                    1. High-quality iron was used to build new machines, especially trains.
                                    2. Richard Trevithick built the first steam locomotive.
                                      1. It called "the Rocket"
                                      2. Building railroads created new jobs for farm laborers and peasants.
                                        1. Less expensive transportation led to lower-priced goods
                                          1. Business owners could reinvest their profits in new equipment, adding to the growth of the economy
                                    3. The Spread of Industrialization
                                      1. Countries with industrialization
                                        1. France
                                          1. German
                                            1. Belgium
                                              1. U.S
                                                1. Thousands of miles of roads and canals were built to link east and west.
                                                  1. Steamboats made transportation easier on the waterways
                                                  2. The railroad a single massive market for the manufactured goods produced in the Northeast
                                                    1. farm population
                                                      1. Women and girls made up a large majority of the workers in large textile
                                              2. Social Impact of Industrialization
                                                1. Population Growth and Urbanization
                                                  1. European population stood at an estimated 140 million in 1750
                                                    1. Population grows beocuse was a decline in death rates, wars, and major epidemic diseases, such as smallpox and plague.
                                                      1. Also Famine and poverty were two factors that impacted global migration and urbanization.
                                                        1. led to pitiful living conditions for many, leading urban reformers to call on local governments to clean up their cities.
                                                  2. New Social Classes
                                                    1. Industrial capitalism
                                                      1. the industrial middle class.
                                                        1. The bourgeois were merchants, officials, artisans, lawyers, or intellectuals in the middle ages
                                                          1. bourgeois came to include people involved in industry and banking, as well as lawyers, teachers, or doctors.
                                                        2. Work hours ranged from 12 to 16 hours each day, 6 days per week. There was no security of employment, and there was no minimum wage.
                                                          1. Steam-powered engines
                                                            1. Coal mines
                                                              1. Dangerous conditions, including cave-ins, explosions, and gas fumes, were a way of life
                                                              2. Cotton mills
                                                                1. women and children made up two-thirds of the cotton industry's workforce by 1830
                                                                  1. child laborers declined after the Factory Act of 1833
                                                                    1. women came to make up 50 percent of the British labor force in textile factories.
                                                            2. Early Socialism
                                                              1. owns and controls some means of production, such as factories and utilities.
                                                                1. the followers of Karl Marx
                                                                  1. They contemptuously labeled the earlier reformers utopian socialists, a term that has lasted to this day.
                                                                    1. Robert Owen
                                                                      1. He believed that humans would show their natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment
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