Hydrocarbon Derivatives


Mind Map on Hydrocarbon Derivatives, created by katya_gaytann6444 on 02/21/2014.
Mind Map by katya_gaytann6444, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by katya_gaytann6444 about 9 years ago

Resource summary

Hydrocarbon Derivatives
  1. Ethers
    1. Uses
        1. Functional Group
          1. They are organic compounds which are considered derivatives of water wherein the hydrogens are replaced by organic radicals.
          2. Physical Properties
            1. Solubility is similar to that of the same molecular mass alcohols.
              1. They are pleasant smelling substances. Its boiling point is similar to, and are weakly polar alkanes.
              2. Nomenclature
                1. It ends with the word ether at the end of the common classification as a halogen.
                2. Functional Isomerism
                  1. Are functional isomers of alcohols, they have the same molecular formula but different structural.
                3. Alcohols
                  1. Physical Properties
                    1. Alcohols with low molecular weight water soluble.
                      1. The density and the boiling point increase with molecular weight.
                      2. Isomerism
                        1. Uses
                                1. Chemical Properties
                                  1. Esterification reaction: They react with carboxylic acids in medium hot produciedo acid esters.
                                    1. Oxidation reaction: The oxidation involves oxygen that provides a strong oxidizing agent.
                                    2. Methods of Obtaining
                                      1. Natural sources. Alcoholic fermentation: to leave in the absence of air like corn or rye produce intoxicating properties. Alcohol has been obtained by the fermentation of fruit, grains, etc..
                                      2. Functional Group
                                        1. They are organic compounds in which one or more hydrogens from a hydrocarbon has been replaced by one or more hydroxyl.
                                        2. Nomenclature
                                          1. Its completion in systematic nomenclature is "ol" for the common name but the "ico" used.
                                          2. Classification
                                            1. Alcohols identification
                                              1. They can be identified by its reaction with sodium metal, the reaction product was as follows hisdrógeno. To differentiate the alcohols have the reaction test called Lucas.
                                            2. Carboxylic Acid
                                              1. Functional Group
                                                1. They are caracterized by their structure in the carboxyl functional group
                                                2. Nomenclature
                                                  1. Must end in "oic" in their common name and its completion is "ico".
                                                  2. Chemical Properties
                                                    1. The hydrogen of the carboxyl-OH acid group gives character to these compounds.
                                                    2. Physical Properties
                                                      1. Are liquid to nine carbons, taking more are solid, unless they contain double bonds.
                                                      2. Natural Sources and Uses
                                                            1. Halogenated
                                                              1. Nomenclature
                                                                1. Halogenated derivatives are named the same way as the alkanes, considering the halogen as a substituent in the main chain.
                                                                2. Functional Group
                                                                    1. They are organic compounds in which one or more hydrogens from a hydrocarbon have been replaced by one or more halogens
                                                                    2. Physical Properties
                                                                      1. Solubility: soluble in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents
                                                                        1. Boiling Point: Increases with molecular mass
                                                                          1. Density: Iodides and Bromides are denser water
                                                                          2. Chemical Properties
                                                                            1. Formation of alcohols is a reaction in which an alkyl halide reacts with a strong base.
                                                                            2. Uses
                                                                              1. Ketones and Aldehydes
                                                                                1. Systematic Nomenclature
                                                                                  1. To name aldehydes termination is "al" and ketones is "ona".
                                                                                  2. Common Nomenclature
                                                                                    1. Aldehydes name is related to carboxylic acids. Ketones Acetone called.
                                                                                    2. Chemical Properties
                                                                                      1. Oxidation reaction: Aldehydes are easily oxidized and hydrogen is due to carbon but ketones resist oxidation.
                                                                                      2. Functional Group
                                                                                        1. Consists of a carbon bonded to oxygen with a double bond and is called carbonyl.
                                                                                        2. Uses
                                                                                                1. Physical Properties
                                                                                                  1. The polarity is larger with double bonds that simple. Its boiling point is higher than that of the hydrocarbons. Its density is lower than that of water. They are soluble in water.
                                                                                                2. Amines
                                                                                                  1. Functional Group
                                                                                                    1. Are nitrogen compounds can be described as inorganic comuesto ammonia derivatives.
                                                                                                    2. Nomenclature
                                                                                                      1. Form alphabetical naming alkyl or aryl groups bonded to the amine nitrogen and adding the suffix.
                                                                                                      2. Amines and Cancer
                                                                                                        1. If someone is exposed to the action of two aromatic amines that are classified as carcinogenic can get cancer.
                                                                                                          1. Classification
                                                                                                            1. Physical Properties
                                                                                                              1. Have melting and boiling points that increase with increasing molecular mass. They are soluble in water.
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