cutiemcpouty
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Degree with Hons Learning - DSE 212 Mind Map on LEARNING, created by cutiemcpouty on 05/22/2013.

131
0
0
Tags
cutiemcpouty
Created by cutiemcpouty over 6 years ago
computer systems and programming quiz
Molly Batch
Proven Ways Flashcards Improve Learning
miminoma
Summer Learning Loss & How To Prevent It
philip.ellis
CHEMISTRY C1 5
x_clairey_x
Chapter 16: The Cold War
Becca Strobbe
5 Steps to Learning Success
Andrea Leyden
Making the Most of GoConqr Flashcards
Sarah Egan
10 good study habits every student should have
Micheal Heffernan
Study Tips to Improve your Learning
miminoma
Improve your Learning using GoConqr
Micheal Heffernan
LEARNING
1 Behaviourism / comparative approach
1.1 Define learning as a change in behaviour due to experience
1.1.1 Believes psych = science of behaviour = Watson
1.2 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
1.2.1 Innate experiences - reflexing response to something
1.2.1.1 unconscious, automatic,involuntary behaviour
1.2.1.1.1 learning works by associations ie stimulis = reaction
1.2.2 PAVLOV
1.2.2.1 Bell + Food = Dogs salivation
1.2.2.1.1 Learning through association
1.2.2.1.2 Before conditioning = UCS (Food) - UCR ( Saliva)
1.2.2.1.2.1 During conditioning = NS ( Bell)+ UCS (Food) - UCR (Saliva)
1.2.2.1.2.1.1 After conditioning = CS 9Bell) - CR (Salivation)
1.2.2.1.2.2 CLASSICAL COND PARADIGM
1.2.2.2 PAVLOV DISCOVERED CERTAIN LAWS OF CONDITIONING
1.2.2.2.1 GENERALISATION
1.2.2.2.1.1 EXTINCTION
1.2.2.2.1.1.1 DISCRIMINATION
1.2.2.2.1.1.1.1 SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY
1.2.3 CONTROLLED EXPERIMENTS WITH ANIMALS
1.2.3.1 SYSTEMATIC
1.2.4 WATSON
1.2.4.1 LITTLE ALBERT
1.2.4.1.1 Loud bang (UCS) = Fear (UCR)
1.2.4.1.1.1 White rat (NS) + Loud bang (UCS) = Fear (UCR)
1.2.4.1.1.1.1 White Rate (Cs) = Fear ( CR)
1.2.5 Applications of CC = Aversion Therapy, Systematic Desensitisation
1.3 OPERANT CONDITIONING
1.3.1 THORNDIKE
1.3.1.1 earlier
1.3.2 B.F. SKINNER
1.3.2.1 SKINNER BOX
1.3.2.1.1 Hungry rat put in BOX with lever, when rat presses lever = receives food pellets.
1.3.2.1.1.1 which acts as a reinforcer for the bar behaviour.
1.3.2.1.1.1.1 OPERANT = BEHAVIOUR GIVEN OFF FROM THE ANIMAL. IE = BAR PRESSING LEVER
1.3.2.1.1.1.1.1 FOOD PELLET - POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
1.3.3 focus on voluntary behaviour emitted from organism - human
1.3.3.1 BEHAVIOUR (OPERANT) has an effect on ENVIRONMENT (+ OR - EFFECT)
1.3.3.1.1 OUTCOMES DEPEND ON ANIMAL/HUMANS BEHAVIOUR
1.3.3.1.1.1 USED ANIMALS IN EXPERIMENTS AND GENERALISED TO HUMANS
1.3.4 THE LAW OF EFFECT
1.3.4.1 Behaviour thats reinforced = more likely to be repeated
1.3.4.2 POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT - Rewards which ENCOURAGE behaviour = REPEATED
1.3.4.3 NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT - Unpleasant STIMULI causes AVOIDANCE Behaviour
1.3.4.4 PUNISHMENT - Different from NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT - Tries to DECREASE BEHAVIOUR - ONCE THEREAT OF PUNISHMENT TAKEN AWAY BEHAVIOUR RETURNS!
1.3.5 OPERANT CONDITIONING = BY REINFORCING GOAL WANTED ANIMALS TAUGHT BEHAVIOUR DESIRED
1.3.5.1 OPERANT CONDITIONING IS BEHAVIOUR SHAPING
1.3.5.1.1 BEHAVIOUR IS SHAPED BY CONSTANT REINFORCEMENT
1.3.5.2 DISCRIMINATION - RESPONSE TO ONE STIMULUS BUT NOT TO ANOTHER
1.3.6 PRIMARY & SECONDARY REINFORCERS
1.3.6.1 PRIMARY - FULFILS BASIC NEED - HUNGER = FOOD
1.3.6.1.1 SECONDARY - REINFORCER VALUE ASSOCIATED WITH PRIMARY INFORCER
1.3.6.1.1.1 EG - TOKEN ECONOMY, MONEY TO BUT WHAT IS WANTED/NEEDED
1.3.6.1.1.1.1 Can be EXCHANGED FOR PRIMARY ENFORCERS
1.3.7 USEFUL BECAUSE
1.3.7.1 TOKEN ECONOMY PROGRAMME - SECONDARY REINFORCERS - SHAPES BEHAVIOUR = Tings to BUY what they want OR STICKER CHARTS
1.3.7.1.1 SCHOOLS USE THESE
1.3.7.1.1.1 POSITIVE REINFORCERS = PRAISE
1.3.7.1.1.1.1 NEGATIVE REINFORCERS = NAUGHTY STEP = USED BY SUPER NANNY
1.3.7.1.1.1.1.1
1.3.8 UNUSEFUL BECAUSE
1.3.8.1 PUNISHMENT = NOT SEEN TO WORK
1.3.8.1.1 ETHICAL ISSUES WITH PUNISHMENT
1.3.9 INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING
1.4 BEHAVIOUR THERAPIES - BASED ON BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION
1.4.1 SYSTEMATIC DESENSITISATION = PIC OF CARTOON SPIDER, PIC OF SPIDER, SPIDER IN GLASS, HOLD ONE - LESS STRESSFUL THAN AVERSION THERAPY.
1.4.1.1 AVERSION THERAPY = ALCOHOL - EMETIC GIVEN SO WHEN SOMEONE DRINKS ALCOHOL MAKES THEM SICK = ASSOCIATION WITH SICK - ALCOHOL = LESS DRINKING.
1.4.1.1.1 IMPLOSION THERAPY = EXTREME VERSION OF AVERSION THERAPY
1.4.2 USE SUCCESSFULLY FOR PHOBIAS & ADDICTIONS
1.4.3 KEY FEATURE = TO STOP UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOUR & LEARN A MORE ADAPTIVE ONE.
1.5 NEGATIVES TO BEHAVIOURISM
1.5.1 MECHANIC APPROACH
1.5.1.1 TREATMENT ALLIVIATES PROBLEM = NOT TREAT CAUSE
1.5.1.1.1 ETHICAL ISSUES = ISSUES ON BEHAVIOUR CONTROL & INDIVIDUALS RIGHTS
1.5.1.1.1.1 THOUGHT QUESTION = CONSIDER WAYS PEOPLE ARE CONDITIONED EVERYDAY!
2 COGNITIVE / MENTAL PROCESSES
2.1 COGNITIVE APPROACHES = MENTAL, ATTENTION, PERCEPTION,
2.1.1 CONCEPT FORMATION, LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT, PROBLEM SOLVING
2.1.1.1 LEARNING IS VIEWED AS - ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE = CHANGE IN MENTAL PROCESSES
2.1.1.1.1 FOCUS - INFORMATION PROCESSING
2.1.1.1.1.1 EXPERIMENTAL METHOD USED TO INVESTIGATE LEARNING
2.2 COGNITIVE APPROACH
2.2.1 BELIEVES CAN DESCRIBE WHATS IN THE MIND AT:
2.2.1.1 A FUNCTIONAL LEVEL
2.2.1.1.1 PROCESS LEVEL - WHAT THE MIND DOES
2.2.2 CATEGORY LEARNING
2.2.2.1 LEARNING THAT HAPPENS WHEN
2.2.2.1.1 PEOPLE REALISE CERTAIN THINGS BELONG IN GROUPS/CATEGORIES
2.2.2.1.1.1 HYPOTHESIS - EXPLANATION FOR A SET OF
2.2.2.1.1.1.1 OBSERVATIONS THAT MAY/MAY NOT
2.2.2.1.1.1.1.1 BE SUPPORTED
2.2.2.2 BRUNER ET AL
2.2.2.2.1 BRUNER FOUND - PEOPLE USED DIFFERENT STRATERGIES
2.2.2.2.1.1 TO LEARN DIFFERENT CATEGORIES
2.2.2.2.1.1.1 LEARNING HAPPENS THROUGH HYPOTHESIS TESTING
2.2.2.2.1.1.1.1 DIFFERENT STRATERGIES TO USE THS
2.2.2.2.1.1.1.1.1 WHEN STIMULI ARE MEANINGFUL =
2.2.2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 PARTICIPANTS MAY USE PRIOR KNOWLEDGE TO
2.2.2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 CONSIDER ONLY THE CATEGORIES THAT MAKE SENSE
2.2.2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 THIS INFLUENCES THE SEARCH TECHNIQUE USED
2.2.2.3 -'S
2.2.2.3.1 ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY
2.2.2.3.1.1 USE OF ARTIFICIAL STIMULI
2.2.2.3.1.1.1 AND CONTROLLED CONDITIONS
2.2.2.4 -'S
2.2.2.4.1 ALTERNATIVE INTERPRETATIONS
2.2.2.4.1.1 ARE CATEGORIES LEARNT/ DO WE HAVE INNATE CAPACITY FOR CAT LEARNING
2.2.2.5 ALTERNATIVE VIEWS
2.2.2.5.1 MURPHY
2.2.2.5.1.1 MURPHY - MEANINGFULNESS IMPORTANT FOR CAT LEARNING
2.2.2.5.1.1.1 PEOPLE LEARN CAT BY LOOKING TO ADD THE SIMILAR
2.2.2.5.1.1.1.1 THINGS TO ALREADY EXISTING KNOWLEDGE
2.2.2.5.2 CHOMSKY & FODOR
2.2.2.5.2.1 CAT CANNOT BE LEARNT
2.2.2.5.2.1.1 CONCEPTS AND IDEAS ABOUT CATEGORIES
2.2.2.5.2.1.1.1 MUST BE INNATE
3 SOCIO CULTURAL
3.1 SOCIO CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING OF LEARNING IS :
3.1.1 USE OF CULTURAL TOOLS & TECHNOLOGIES
3.1.1.1 SOCIO THEORISTS ARE INTERESTED IN =
3.1.1.1.1 INTERPERSONAL & INSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT OF LEARNING
3.2 FOCUSES ON SOCIAL INTERACTION
3.2.1 KEY FEATURES OF SOCIO CULTURAL LEARNING
3.2.1.1 LEARNING EMPHASIZES USE OF PHYSICAL TOOLS & TECHNOLOGIES WITHIN SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONTEXT
3.2.1.1.1 LEARNING IS CHARACTERISED AS = A PROCESS OF ENCULTURISATION
3.2.1.1.1.1 SOCIO CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE OF LEARNING =
3.3 - WHERE PEOPLE ADOPT SPECIFIC CULTURAL PRACTICES
3.3.1 AND ACT IN ACCORDANCE TO CULTURAL NORMS
3.3.2 ENCULTURATION
3.4 LEARNING IS -
3.4.1 SEEN AS BEING MEDIATED BY PHYSICAL TOOLS = COMPUTERS
3.4.1.1 PSYCHOLOGICAL TOOLS - LANGUAGE
3.4.2 CHARACTERISED AS PROCESS OF ENCULTURISATION
3.5 SOCIO CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE ON LEARNING =
3.5.1 BOUNDARIES DRAWN BETWEEN SUBJECT MATTER OF
3.5.1.1 OF COGNITIVE PSYCH & SOCIAL PSYCH ARE INAPPROPRIATE
3.6 METHOD USED - OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES
3.7 APPROPRIATION
3.7.1 MAKING SOMETHING YOUR OWN
3.7.1.1 TOOLS ARE NOT SOMETHING WE PICK UP AND PUT DOWN
3.7.1.1.1 BUT BECOME PART OF HOW WE CONSTRUCT THE WORLD
3.7.1.1.1.1 APPROACH PROBLEMS AND APPROACH OTHERS
3.7.2 LIGHT AND LITTLETON
3.7.2.1 APPROPRIATION INVOLVES
3.7.2.1.1 NOT JUST USING TOOLS BUT
3.7.2.1.1.1 IT INVOLVES TAKINGS SOMETHING FOR ONES OWN USE
3.7.3 EXAMPLE OF TOOLS WE MAKE OUR OWN = MOBILE PHONE
3.8 LANGUAGE IS IMPORTANT IN SOCIO CULTURAL INTERACTION
3.8.1 LEARNERS INTERACTION & TALK WITH OTHERS = MEDIATION BETWEEN WORLD TO LEARN ABOUT AND LEARNER
3.8.2 MERCER
3.8.2.1 NATURAL OBSERVATION
3.8.2.1.1 HOW CHILDREN USE LANGUAGE TO LEARN ABOUT COMPUTERS
4 Conditioning
4.1 Stimulus - Response (S-R) Psych
4.2 looks at input - output (mental processes not observable)

Media attachments