Physics T5 aqa gcse 9-1 (8463)

Janki Ranavaya
Mind Map by Janki Ranavaya, updated more than 1 year ago
Janki Ranavaya
Created by Janki Ranavaya almost 3 years ago
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GCSE Physics Mind Map on Physics T5 aqa gcse 9-1 (8463), created by Janki Ranavaya on 10/14/2017.

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Physics T5 aqa gcse 9-1 (8463)
1 Forces and their interactions
1.1 Scalar and vector quantities
1.1.1 Scalar quantities have magnitude only.
1.1.2 Vector quantities have magnitude and an associated direction. A vector quantity may be represented by an arrow. The length of the arrow represents the magnitude, and the direction of the arrow the direction of the vector quantity.
2 Contact and non-contact forces
2.1 contact forces – the objects are physically touching
2.1.1 friction, air resistance, tension and normal contact force.
2.2 non-contact forces – the objects are physically separated.
2.2.1 non-contact forces are gravitational force, electrostatic force and magnetic force.
2.3 Force is a vector quantity
3 Gravity
3.1 Weight is the force acting on an object due to gravity. The force of gravity close to the Earth is due to the gravitational field around the Earth.
3.1.1 The weight of an object depends on the gravitational field strength at the point where the object is.
4 Resultant forces
4.1 A number of forces acting on an object may be replaced by a single force that has the same effect as all the original forces acting together. This single force is called the resultant force.
4.2 A single force can be resolved into two components acting at right angles to each other.
4.2.1 The two component forces together have the same effect as the single force.
5 Moments, levers and gears
5.1 A force or a system of forces may cause an object to rotate.
5.2 If an object is balanced, the total clockwise moment about a pivot equals the total anticlockwise moment about that pivot.
5.3 A simple lever and a simple gear system can both be used to transmit the rotational effects of forces.
6 Pressure and pressure differences in fluids
6.1 Pressure in a fluid 1
6.1.1 pressure = force normal to a surface/area of that surface {p = F/A} pressure, p, in pascals, Pa force, F, in newtons, N area, A, in metres squared, m^2
6.1.2 The pressure in fluids causes a force normal (at right angles) to any surface.
6.2 Pressure in a fluid 2
6.2.1 pressure = height of the column × density of the liquid × gravitational field strength [ p = h ρ g ] pressure, p, in pascals, Pa height of the column, h, in metres, m density, ρ, in kilograms per metre cubed, kg/m^3 gravitational field strength, g, in newtons per kilogram, N/kg (In any calculation the value of the gravitational field strength (g)
6.2.1.1 The more dense a given liquid is, the more particles it has a certain space. This means there are more particles that are able to collide so that pressure is higher . As the depth of the liquid increases, the number of particles above that point increases. The weight of these particles adds to the pressure felt at that point, so liquid pressure increases the depth.
6.3 Atmospheric pressure
6.3.1 The atmosphere is a thin layer (relative to the size of the Earth) of air round the Earth. The atmosphere gets less dense with increasing altitude. Air molecules colliding with a surface create atmospheric pressure. The number of air molecules (and so the weight of air) above a surface decreases as the height of the surface above ground level increases. So as height increases there is always less air above a surface than there is at a lower height. So atmospheric pressure decreases with an increase in height
6.3.2 As the altitude increases, atmospheric pressure decreases
6.3.2.1 This is because the altitude increases, the atmosphere gets less dense , so there are fewer air molecules that are able to colide with the surface.
6.3.2.1.1 There are also fewer air molecules above a surface as the height increases . this means tht the weight of the air above it, which contributes to the atmospheric pressure, decreases with altitude
7 Distance and displacement
7.1 Distance is how far an object moves. Distance does not involve direction. Distance is a scalar quantity. Displacement includes both the distance an object moves, measured in a straight line from the start point to the finish point and the direction of that straight line. Displacement is a vector quantity.
8 Speed
8.1 Speed does not involve direction. Speed is a scalar quantity. The speed of a moving object is rarely constant. When people walk, run or travel in a car their speed is constantly changing.
8.1.1 It is not only moving objects that have varying speed. The speed of sound and the speed of the wind also vary. A typical value for the speed of sound in air is 330 m/s.
8.1.1.1 distance travelled  = speed × time [s = v t] distance, s, in metres, m speed, v, in metres per second, m/s time, t, in seconds, s
9 Velocity
9.1 The velocity of an object is its speed in a given direction. Velocity is a vector quantity.
9.1.1 As an object is moving in a circle at a constant seed has a changing velocity as the direction is always changing e.g a car gong around a roundabout .
10 The distance–time relationship
10.1 If an object moves along a straight line, the distance travelled can be represented by a distance–time graph. The speed of an object can be calculated from the gradient of its distance–time graph.
10.1.1 If an object is accelerating, its speed at any particular time can be determined by drawing a tangent and measuring the gradient of the distance–time graph at that time.
11 Acceleration
11.1 acceleration = change in velocity /time taken (a = ∆ v/t) acceleration, a, in metres per second squared, m/s^2 change in velocity, ∆v, in metres per second, m/s time, t, in seconds, s
11.1.1 The acceleration of an object can be calculated from the gradient of a velocity–time graph.
11.1.1.1 Near the Earth’s surface any object falling freely under gravity has an acceleration of about 9.8 m/s2 .
11.1.1.2 An object falling through a fluid initially accelerates due to the force of gravity. Eventually the resultant force will be zero and the object will move at its terminal velocity.
11.1.1.2.1 When falling objects first sett off, the force of gravity is much more that the frictional force slowing them down. As the speed increases the friction builds up. This gradually reduces the acceleration until eventually the frictional force is equal to the accelerting force. It will have reached its maximum speed or terminal velocity and will fall at a steady speed.
11.1.1.2.1.1 Terminal velocity depends on the objects shape and area
11.2 An object that slows down is decelerating
11.3 The distance travelled by an object (or displacement of an object) can be calculated from the area under a velocity–time graph.
11.4 The following equation applies to uniform acceleration: (final velocity)^ 2 − (initial velocity )^2 = 2 × acceleration × distance.{ v^2 − u^2 = 2 a s } final velocity, v, in metres per second, m/s initial velocity, u, in metres per second, m/s acceleration, a, in metres per second squared, m/s^2 distance, s, in metres, m
12 Newtons first law
12.1 Newton’s First Law: If the resultant force acting on an object is zero and: • the object is stationary, the object remains stationary • the object is moving, the object continues to move at the same speed and in the same direction. So the object continues to move at the same velocity
12.1.1 So, when a vehicle travels at a steady speed the resistive forces balance the driving force.
12.1.1.1 So, the velocity (speed and/or direction) of an object will only change if a resultant force is acting on the object.
13 Newtons second law
13.1 The acceleration of an object is proportional to the resultant force acting on the object, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
13.1.1 resultant force  = mass × acceleration F = m a force, F, in newtons, N mass, m, in kilograms, kg acceleration, a, in metres per second squared, m/s2
13.1.1.1 Required practical activity 7: investigate the effect of varying the force on the acceleration of an object of constant mass, and the effect of varying the mass of an object on the acceleration produced by a constant force.
14 Newtons third law
14.1 Newton’s Third Law: Whenever two objects interact, the forces they exert on each other are equal and opposite.
15 Stopping distance
15.1 The stopping distance of a vehicle is the sum of the distance the vehicle travels during the driver’s reaction time (thinking distance) and the distance it travels under the braking force (braking distance). For a given braking force the greater the speed of the vehicle, the greater the stopping distance.
15.1.1 Factors affecting braking distance 1:The braking distance of a vehicle can be affected by adverse road and weather conditions and poor condition of the vehicle. Adverse road conditions include wet or icy conditions. Poor condition of the vehicle is limited to the vehicle’s brakes or tyres.
15.1.2 Factors affecting braking distance 2:When a force is applied to the brakes of a vehicle, work done by the friction force between the brakes and the wheel reduces the kinetic energy of the vehicle and the temperature of the brakes increases. The greater the speed of a vehicle the greater the braking force needed to stop the vehicle in a certain distance. The greater the braking force the greater the deceleration of the vehicle. Large decelerations may lead to brakes overheating and/or loss of control.
16 Momentum
16.1 momentum = mass  × velocity {p = m v} momentum, p, in kilograms metre per second, kg m/s mass, m, in kilograms, kg velocity, v, in metres per second, m/s
16.2 Conservation of momentum
16.2.1 In a closed system, the total momentum before an event is equal to the total momentum after the event. This is called conservation of momentum.
16.3 Changes in momentum
16.3.1 The equations F = m × a and a = v − u/ t combine to give the equation F = m ∆ v/ ∆ t where m∆v = change in momentum ie force equals the rate of change of momentum.

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