Thyroid Tumors

Mind Map by Gdubs, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by Gdubs over 5 years ago


Medicine Mind Map on Thyroid Tumors, created by Gdubs on 08/04/2014.

Resource summary

Thyroid Tumors
1 Benign
1.1 Types
1.1.1 Follicular Adenoma "Cold" Almost all are cold May still produce worrisome symptoms Compression of trachea Dysphagia "Hot" Functioning Clinical Findings Increased radioactive iodine uptake May have signs of hyperthyroidism Subtypes Macro (colloid) Normo Micro Trabecular General Most common benign thyroid tumor Encapsulated tumor with follicular differentiation Very low malignant potential Almost always solitary Treatment Partial or complete thyroidectomy
1.1.2 Solitary Nodule
1.1.3 Granular Cell Tumor
2 Malignant
2.1 Types
2.1.1 Papillary Carcinoma General Most common thyroid malignancy F>M, 3:1 a/w childhood radiation exposure Excellent prognosis Gross and Microscopic Findings Multifocal Empty appearing nuclei Orphan Annie eyes Papillary projections within glandular space Psamomma bodies Collection of calcified cancer cells; stain deep purple Lymphatic invasion Mets to cervical LNs and lung Diagnosis and Treatment Dx: FNA Partial or complete thyroidectomy Followed by radiotherapy with radioactive Iodine Suppression therapy levothyroxine to increase negative feedback on TSH secretion Shrinks the tumor
2.1.2 Follicular Carcinoma General F>M Good prognosis a/w radiation exposure (less so than papillary) and iodine deficiency Gross and Microscopic Findings Usually a single cold, encapsulated nodule Haematogenous spread


  • Rather than lymphatic spread as seen in papillary carcinoma Mets to lung and bone first Well-differentiated, uniform follicles No psamomma bodies Widely invasive or minimally invasive classification


  • Minimally invasive: capsule invasion only (may have some vascular invasion of a few small vessels) Widely invasive: extends through capsule and into thyroid parenchyma and vasculature Hurthle cell carcinoma often considered a variant Diagnosis and Treatment FNA is NOT diagnostic Microscopically the same as follicular adenoma Need evidence of invasion Definitive dx requires lobectomy Treated similarly to papillary carcinoma
2.1.3 Medullary Carcinoma Findings Increased serum calcitonin Causes diarrhoea Tumor marker May have ectopic hormone production, paraneoplastic syndromes Ex. ACTH causing Cushing syndrome Calcitonin amyloid material in stroma Mets Early regional LN mets common Distant mets to liver, lung, bone and brain Diagnosis and Treatment Dx: FNA, increased calcitonin Total thyroidectomy and genetic screening of RET gene if familial General Neuroendocrine tumor of parafollicular C cells C-cell hyperplasia is a precursor lesion Causes Sporadic (80%) Poorer prognosis than familial type Unilateral Familial (20%) a/w MEN 2A and 2B


  • Recall:  MEN 2A- medullary carcinoma, hyperparathyroidism, pheochromocytoma MEN 2B- medullary carcinoma, mucosal neuromas, pheochromocytoma Younger patients Bilateral and multicentric
2.1.4 Anaplastic General Elderly women a/w multinodular goiter and positive follicular cancer history Rapidly aggressive VERY poor prognosis Early dissemination Invasion of local structures (trachea, oesophagus) common 50% have lung mets at presentation Gross and Microscopic Findings Regions of spontaneous haemorrhage and necrosis Infiltration of adjacent structures Diagnosis and Treatment Dx: FNA or surgery if inconclusive Palliative treatment Partial surgical resection Tumor often compresses the trachea Extensive resection of tumor and surrounding structures generally NOT indicated High post-op morbidity Ex. vocal cord paralysis No proven survival benefit Chemo or radiation
2.1.5 Primary B Cell Lymphoma Most commonly a/w Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Show full summary Hide full summary


Danielle Richardson
History of Medicine: Ancient Ideas
James McConnell
Epithelial tissue
Morgan Morgan
4. The Skeletal System - bones of the skull
Neuro anatomy
James Murdoch
The Endocrine System
Medical Terminology
Diabetes - pathophysiology
Morgan Morgan
Respiratory anatomy
James Murdoch
Neuro system
James Murdoch