A02 Language Change

Tullia
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Mind Map on A02 Language Change, created by Tullia on 05/28/2013.

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Tullia
Created by Tullia over 6 years ago
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A02 Language Change
1 A02 Language Acquisition
1.1 Halliday
1.1.1 Personal

Annotations:

  • Expressing feelings and opinions e.g. 'me like...'
1.1.2 Interactional

Annotations:

  • Contact and forming relationships e.g. 'I see you...'
1.1.3 Instrumental

Annotations:

  • Expressing needs e.g. 'I want...'
1.1.4 Regulatory

Annotations:

  • Telling others what to do e.g. 'go get...'
1.1.5 Imaginative

Annotations:

  • Stories, jokes and imagining environments.
1.1.6 Representational

Annotations:

  • Conveying facts and information. 
1.1.7 Heuristic

Annotations:

  • Environment e.g. 'what does duck say?'
1.2 Aitchison
1.2.1 Labelling

Annotations:

  • Stage 1: Links between the sounds of words and objects
1.2.2 Packaging

Annotations:

  • Stage 2: Understand that a word has a range of meanings. Over and under extension.
1.2.3 Network Building

Annotations:

  • Stage 3: Connections between words.
1.3 Piaget
1.3.1 Sensorimotor

Annotations:

  • 0-2 years a child experiences physical through senses and begins to classify things Object Permenance: Concept that things exist when out of sight. 
1.3.2 Concrete Operational

Annotations:

  • 7-11 years. Child thinks logically about concrete events.
1.3.3 Formal Operational

Annotations:

  • 11+ Abstract reasoning skills develop.
1.3.4 Pre-Operational

Annotations:

  • 2-7 years. Language and motor skills developed. Still egocentric- all focused on the child.
1.4 Bellugi Pronoun development
1.4.1 1. Own name
1.4.2 2. Recognises I/me and when they are used.
1.4.3 3. Can use them according to subject or object position in sentence.
1.5 Vygotsky
1.5.1 ZPD- Zone of Proximal Development

Annotations:

  • A child has to be in a certain zone to acquire language.
1.5.2 MKO- More Knowledgeable Other

Annotations:

  • A person to teach and guide the child.
1.6 Lenneberg
1.6.1 The human brain is designed to acquire language in a certain time period, and once passed development is not possible (first five years).
1.7 Bruner
1.7.1 Language is developed depending on the quality and quantity of interaction.
1.7.2 Children initially use language to get what they want.
1.7.3 LASS: Language Acquisition Support System
1.8 Skinner
1.8.1 Children learn to speak by immitating their parents and being rewarded or punished depending on accuracy.
1.9 Nature vs. Nurture
1.9.1 Nature/nativist: Language is innate
1.9.2 Nurture/empiricist: Language is learnt.
1.9.3 Interactionist: Influence from both nativist and empiricist
1.10 Chomsky
1.10.1 LAD: Language Acquisition Device

Annotations:

  • Chomsky believed that all language is innate as it is all learnt in a similar way. 
2 Guy Deutscher
2.1 Language does not change due to contact with others.
2.2 No person or thing changes language
2.3 All modifiers of language are unintentional
2.4 Changes are due to laziness, expressive and analogy.
3 Peter Turgill Norwich Survey
3.1 '-ing' decreased as class did
3.2 Almost 100% middle class used standard '-ing' compared to non-standard '-in' used by 95% of lower class
3.3 '-ing' increased as formality does.
3.4 Females use the standard '-ing' more than males
4 Jean Aitchison
4.1 Crumbling Castle

Annotations:

  • Ignoring 'proper' English means language has decayed. Assumes language was once 'perfect'
4.2 Cuckoo's Nest

Annotations:

  • One particular usage becomes dominant.
4.3 Language Web

Annotations:

  • All factors are linked.
4.4 Infectious Disease

Annotations:

  • We catch 'bad language' and spread it.
4.5 Damp Spoon

Annotations:

  • Laziness spreads causing change
5 Jenny Cheshire
5.1 Females more status concious and more likely to conform to rules.
5.2 Females more likely to use standard English and Overt Prestige
5.3 Males gain popularity using covert prestige
6 Goodman
6.1 Language has undergone informalisation
7 Howard Giles
7.1 When people interact they adjust their speech to acomodate others
7.2 Divergence: Speaker changes language to distance from the other
7.3 Convergence: Speaker changes language to fit others.
8 Sapir Whorf Hypothesis
8.1 Language determines thought and linguistic categories.
8.2 Language dictates the way we think and how we conceptualise the world.
8.3 Language affects the way a speaker views the world.
9 Prescriptivist vs descriptivist
9.1 Prescriptivist: Judgements about language change.
9.2 Descriptivist: Describes the process of change.

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