2nd Chemistry Exam

DylanS
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Mind Map on 2nd Chemistry Exam, created by DylanS on 05/28/2013.

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DylanS
Created by DylanS over 6 years ago
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2nd Chemistry Exam
1 C4
1.1 Atoms
1.1.1 Components
1.1.1.1 Proton
1.1.1.2 Neutron
1.1.1.3 Electron
1.2 Elements
1.2.1 Oxygen
1.2.2 Uranium
1.3 Compounds
1.3.1 Water
1.3.1.1 Purifying
1.3.1.1.1 3 steps

Annotations:

  • Sedimentation Filtration Chlorination
1.3.1.2 Testing
1.3.1.2.1 for sulphate ions

Annotations:

  • Barium Chloride solution
1.3.1.2.2 for halide ions

Annotations:

  • Silver Nitrate solution
1.3.2 2 or more elements linked together
1.4 Periodic Table
1.4.1 Group 1 Elements

Annotations:

  • Furthest left on the periodic tableMost reactive metalsReact strongly with OxygenReact violently with water Gain 1 electron to form ions
1.4.1.1 Examples

Annotations:

  • Potassium Sodium Lithium
1.4.1.2 Flame tests

Annotations:

  • Lithium-Red Sodium-Orange Potassium-Lilac
1.4.2 Group 7 Elements

Annotations:

  • Halogens2nd furthest to the rightUsed in pesticides, plastics and sterilisers Lose 1 electron to form ions
1.4.2.1 Examples

Annotations:

  • Iodine Chlorine Fluorine
1.4.2.2 Uses

Annotations:

  • Iodine-Antiseptic Chlorine-Sterilising swimming pool water
1.4.3 Transition elements
1.4.3.1 Form different ions (2+, 3+ etc.)
1.4.3.2 Form coloured solutions and compounds
1.4.3.3 Iron (Fe)
1.4.3.3.1 Can form a 2+ or 3+ ion
1.4.3.3.2 Hydrated Iron(III) oxide=rust
1.5 Bonding types
1.5.1 Ionic

Annotations:

  • Bonding between a positively and a negatively charged ion
1.5.2 Covalent

Annotations:

  • The sharing of electrons
1.5.3 Metalic

Annotations:

  • Metal ions stuck together in a sea of delocalised electrons
1.6 Superconductors
1.6.1 0 resistance
2 C5
2.1 Calculations

Annotations:

  • See book pages 166-171 and 174/5 Too long to talk about on this
2.1.1 Moles
2.1.1.1 Molar masses
2.1.2 Percentage composition
2.1.3 Concentration
2.2 Empirical formulae

Annotations:

  • C6H12O6 would become CH2O You divide the bottom numbers by the highest common factor (in this case 2)
2.3 Acids, Bases and stuff like that
2.3.1 Dilution
2.3.1.1 Formula

Annotations:

  • Starting Concentration ---------------------x Starting volume Target concentration
2.3.2 GDA (guideline daily amounts)

Annotations:

  • The amount of each substance that someone needs to be healthy
2.3.3 Titrations

Annotations:

  • Use indicators such as phenolphthalein.
2.3.4 pH curves

Annotations:

  • Shows the pH value of a solution in graphical form
2.3.5 Sulphuric acid
2.3.5.1 Contact Process

Annotations:

  • 3 stages 3 key components (Sulphur, air and water) Conditions must be chosen appropriately
2.4 Gases
2.4.1 Measuring

Annotations:

  • Measure the volumes using a gas syringe and/or by counting bubbles Bubbles are very unreliable as there is no standard measurements for bubble size
2.4.2 Volumes

Annotations:

  • Directly proportional to the mass of reactants (double one and the other will double)
2.5 Equilibria

Annotations:

  • At equilibrium the reaction does not stop but the precise same number of reactions happen as counter-reactions The position of the equilibrium can be moved by: the concentration of reactants and products, the temperature changes or the pressure changes
2.5.1 Doesn't the picture look like Mrs Barnes and Mr Powell?
2.6 Strong and weak acids
2.6.1 Weak acids and their uses

Annotations:

  • Example-Citric acid Use- limestone descaling
2.6.2 Strong acids and their uses

Annotations:

  • Example-Sulphuric acid Uses- Car batteries, chemistry catalysts
2.6.3 Strength of acids determined by the concentration of Hydrogen ions
3 C6
3.1 Electrolysis

Annotations:

  • The decomposition of stable compounds by using an electric current 2 Electrodes -Positive one is an anode which attracts negatively charged anions to it. -Negative one is a cathode which attracts positively charged cations to it
3.1.1 Fuel Cells

Annotations:

  • Usually use hydrogen and oxygen Don't need to explain how they work in great detail Applied elctrolysis
3.1.1.1 Uses

Annotations:

  • Apollo 13 Fuel cells in space Fuel cells on Earth
3.2 Redox reactions

Annotations:

  • Oxidation Is Loss of electronsReduction IsGain of electrons
3.2.1 Rusting

Annotations:

  • The hydration of Iron (III) Oxide
3.2.1.1 Sacrificial protection

Annotations:

  • Example-galvanising (iron or steel) The outer coating gives up its electrons first "sacrificing" itself for what we want to protect
3.3 Alcohol and fermentation
3.3.1 Fermentation

Annotations:

  • The anaerobic respiration of certain yeasts to create alcohol (see my second biology exam mindmap)
3.3.2 Alcohol

Annotations:

  • yum Examples that can be produced by fermentation for human consumption include beer and wineExamples of lethal alcohol include Methanol and PropanolReally all they are is an alkene with some oxygen attached
3.4 The Ozone Layer

Annotations:

  • Ozone is O3 Broken down by CFC's Prevents harmful UV light from reaching the Earth CFCs are now banned due to the Montreal protocol
3.5 Water Hardness
3.5.1 Permanent

Annotations:

  • caused by dissolved calcium sulphate
3.5.2 Temporary

Annotations:

  • caused by dissolved calcium hydrogencarbonate Can be thermally decomposed to remove hardness but this causes limescale
3.5.3 Removal methods

Annotations:

  • Ion Exchange and some Washing sodas are very good at getting out water hardness
3.6 Natural fats and oils
3.6.1 Examples

Annotations:

  • Milk Cheese Butter
3.6.2 Difference

Annotations:

  • Fats are solid at room temperature Oils are liquid at room temperature
3.6.3 Esters

Annotations:

  • Carboxylic acid + alcohol=ester Fatty acids chemically joined to glycerol if it is more complicated
3.6.4 Fats in more detail

Annotations:

  • in saturated fats all the carbon-carbon bonds are single covalent bonds In unsaturated fats one or more of the carbon-carbon bonds are double covalent bonds
3.7 Detergents and cleaning

Annotations:

  • Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tail
3.7.1 Cleaning
3.7.1.1 Biological detergents

Annotations:

  • Enzymes digest the stains off of the material being washed
3.7.1.2 Dry cleaning

Annotations:

  • Use of a solvent called tetrachloroethene Clothes are checked and things that may dissolve are removed Washed in a big washing machine

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