1750-1900 the development of the Germ theory

Greta Westwood
Mind Map by Greta Westwood, updated more than 1 year ago
Greta Westwood
Created by Greta Westwood over 6 years ago
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Mind Map on 1750-1900 the development of the Germ theory, created by Greta Westwood on 05/29/2013.

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1750-1900 the development of the Germ theory
1 Germ Theory
1.1 The idea that there are microbes in the air which cause decay
1.2 An important breakthrough in scientific understanding
1.3 Disproved the theory of Spontaneous generation
1.4 Led Koch to identify the specific microbes that caused some individual diseases
1.4.1 This improved understanding of the causes of diseases, scientists hoped they could find ways of treating them
1.4.1.1 But was going to take some time - would need to identify microbe responsible for each separate disease
2 Pasteur
2.1 When he discovered the technique that created a weakened version of a chicken cholera microbe
2.1.1 almost 20 years later, he realised that vaccines for other diseases could be developed
2.1.1.1 But this also depended on microbes for each specific disease being identified
2.2 Louis Pasteur, was a French Chemist
3 Impact
3.1 Despite its importance, this breakthrough in scientific knowledge and understanding had limited impact on medicine at the time
3.1.1 Because each disease had to be researched individually
3.2 Progress in the prevention and treatment of disease, was, therefore, slow.
4 The development of Germ Theory
4.1 1. In the 1850s Pasteur investigated the problem of liquids turning sour in the brewing and vinegar industries
4.2 2. More powerful microscopes had recently become available - which meant Pasteur could observe the growth of unwanted small organisms in the liquids.
4.3 3. He discovered heating the liquid killed the bacteria and stopped the liquid going sour
4.4 4. 1861- Pasteur published his Germ Theory - showing that there were microbes in the air and that they were causing decay
4.4.1 His work disproved the idea of Spontaneous generation
4.4.1.1 No decay happened if matter was placed in a sealed container
4.4.1.1.1 Showed that the microbes causing decay were not from the matter itself but were in the air around it
4.5 5. In 1875, Robert Koch decided to investigate whether bacteria were linked to disease
4.5.1 A German doctor who had read Pasteur's work
4.5.2 He worked with a team of scientists-funded by the German government
4.5.2.1 He identified specific microbes that caused the disease, anthrax in sheep
4.5.3 6. Koch identified the microbes causing TB in 1882 and those causing cholera in 1883
4.5.3.1 (Tuberculosis)
4.5.3.2 Koch found that chemical dyes could be used to stain specific bacteria so they could be studied more easily under the microscope
4.6 6. 1879- Pasteur's team was studying Chicken cholera microbes and injecting chickens with the disease
4.6.1 A culture of the bacteria was accidently left on one side- when it was used a couple of weeks later- it had become a weakened version which didn't harm the chickens
4.6.1.1 Pasteur realised that this could be used as a vaccine to create immunity from that disease for chickens.
4.6.1.1.1 He called this process 'vaccination' - In tribute to the importance of Jenner's work
5 The importance of research teams
5.1 By the end of the 19th Century, scientific research was usually carried out by a team rather than by an individual.
5.2 A team was more likely to have funding & be able to afford expensive new technology
5.2.1 Such as more powerful microscopes
5.3 Working in a team made it easier to check each other's work and carry out large-scale testing
5.4 Different members of a team could offer knowledge of different specialisms
5.4.1 e.g. medicine, biology and chemistry
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