The extraction of metals

jasmin.sahota
Mind Map by jasmin.sahota, updated more than 1 year ago
jasmin.sahota
Created by jasmin.sahota almost 7 years ago
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Mind Map on The extraction of metals, created by jasmin.sahota on 05/31/2013.

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The extraction of metals
1 found in ores containing oxygen and sulfur
2 iron oxide, Fe2O3
2.1 Fe3+ to Fe
2.1.1 reduction from a 3+ to 0
3 copper sulphide CuS, to copper
3.1 +2 to O
4 need a cheap, readily available reducing agent
4.1 impurities (gangue) clay and rock have to be removed
4.1.1 non-polluting and easy to dispose of by-products
5 converting sulphides to oxides
5.1 heating in air, called roasting
5.1.1 zinc sulphide converted to zinc oxide
5.1.1.1 ZnS(s) + 1.5O2(g) ---> ZnO(s) + SO2(g)
5.1.1.1.1 however SO2 is an acidic gas and produces (sulphuric acid) when mixed with water, a contributor to acid rain
5.1.1.1.1.1 however SO2 can be coverted to sulkphuric acid in controlled conditions and sold for a variety of purposes
5.1.1.1.1.1.1 SO2(g)+H2O(g)+0.5O2(g)-->H2SO4(l)
6 choosing a reducing agent
6.1 Coke
6.1.1 impure form of carbon
6.1.1.1 cheaply obtained by heating coal in the absence of air
6.1.1.1.1 however so metals require very high temperatures (ends up uneconomic)
6.1.1.1.1.1 at high temps metal react with carbon to form carbides
6.2 Hydrogen
6.2.1 made from methane and water
6.2.1.1 used to extract tungsten
6.3 metals high up on the reactivity series
6.3.1 can use electrolysis
6.3.1.1 such as sodium and aluminium
6.4 use a more reactive metals
7 recycling and the environment
7.1 iron
7.1.1 can be melted down and reformed
7.1.1.1 easily separated from other materials because it is magnetic
7.1.1.1.1 does not produce CO2 when melted down
7.1.1.1.1.1 whereas extraction does
7.1.1.1.1.1.1 however energy needs to melt involves the production of CO2
7.2 aluminium
7.2.1 also recycled by melting
7.2.1.1 only uses 5% of energy needs for extraction
7.2.1.1.1 recycling avoids large amount of CO2 formed
7.2.1.1.1.1 however big rising costs in sorting and transporting of recycled material
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