Nucleophilic substitution

jasmin.sahota
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Mind Map on Nucleophilic substitution, created by jasmin.sahota on 06/01/2013.

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jasmin.sahota
Created by jasmin.sahota over 6 years ago
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Nucleophilic substitution
1 nucleophile
1.1 are reagents that attack and form bonds with electron deficient carbons
1.2 usually a negatively charged ion
1.3 or a partially negative atom
1.4 has a lone pair of electrons
1.4.1 used to make a covalent bond
1.5 common nucleophiles
1.5.1 :OH-
1.5.2 :NH3
1.5.3 :CN-
2 rules
2.1 curly arrow
2.2 goes from electrons to +
2.3 goes from bond to atom
2.4 rate of reaction
2.4.1 increases as you go down the group
2.4.1.1 as bond strength decreases
3 for the hydroxide ion, :OH-
3.1 take place at room temperature
3.2 called a hydrolysis reaction
3.3 add ethanol
3.4 an alcohol is formed
4 with cyanide ions, :CN-
4.1 you get a nitrile
4.2 has one extra carbon
5 with ammonia, :NH3
5.1 used with excess conc solution of ammonia in ethanol
5.2 carried out under pressure
5.3 produces a primary amine, RNH2
5.4 H's have +
5.5 N has a -
5.6 add 2 NH3's
5.7 end up with NH4X
5.8 one of the H's becomes +
6 uses of nucleophilic substitution
6.1 primary amine
6.1.1 secondary amine
6.1.1.1 tertiary amine
6.2 alcohol
6.2.1 aldehyde
6.2.1.1 carboxylic acid
6.3 nitriile
6.3.1 primary amine
6.3.2 carboxylic acid

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