Chemical Kinetics

rodrigo sala
Mind Map by rodrigo sala, updated more than 1 year ago
rodrigo sala
Created by rodrigo sala almost 6 years ago
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Mind Map on Chemical Kinetics, created by rodrigo sala on 28/08/2014.

Resource summary

Chemical Kinetics
1 Vocabulary
1.1 Reaction rate- is the speed at which a chemical reaction occurs
1.2 Chemical Kinetics- is the area of chemistry concerned with the speeds, or rates, of reactions.
1.3 instantaneous rate- of a reaction, which is the rate at a particular instant during the reaction.
1.4 catalyst- is a substance that increases the rate of a reaction without undergoing a net chemical change itself
1.5 homogeneous catalyst- is one that is in the same phase as the reactants.
1.6 heterogeneous catalyst -has a different phase from the reactants
1.7 reaction mechanism -details the individual steps that occur in the course of a reaction.
1.8 unimolecular, bimolecular, or termolecular,- depending on whether one, two, or three reactant molecules are involved
2 Factors that affect reaction rates
2.1 1- Physical state of the reactants. Reactants must come together to react. The more readily reactant molecules collide with one another, the more rapidly they react
2.2 2- Reactant concentrations. Most chemical reactions proceed faster if the concentration of one or more reactants is increased.
2.3 3- . Reaction temperature. Reaction rates generally increase as temperature is increased.
2.4 4- The presence of a catalyst. Catalysts are agents that increase reaction rates without themselves being used up.
3 Reaction rates
3.1 The speed of an event is defined as the change that occurs in a given time interval, which means that whenever we talk about speed, we necessarily bring in the notion of time.
3.2 Similarly, the speed of a chemical reaction—its reaction rate—is the change in the concentration of reactants or products per unit of time.
4 Reaction Orders
4.1 The Exponents in the Rate Law The rate law for most reactions has the form Rate = k[reactant 1]m[reactant 2]n The exponents m and n are called reaction orders.
5 THE CHANGE OF CONCENTRATION WITH TIME
5.1 first order reactions
5.1.1 n is one whose rate depends on the concentration of a single reactant raised to the first power
5.2 integrated rate law
5.2.1 ln[A]t - ln[A]0 = -kt or ln [A]t [A]0 = -kt
5.3 differential rate law
5.3.1 Rate = - [A]/t = k[A]
5.4 second order reactions
5.4.1 rate depends either on a reactant concentration raised to the second power or on the concentrations of two reactants each raised to the first power.
5.5 half life
5.5.1 Half-life is a convenient way to describe how fast a reaction occurs, especially if it is a first-order process. A fast reaction has a short half-life
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