3.3 - How can demand for energy be managed sustainably

RoryFlynn2
Mind Map by RoryFlynn2, updated more than 1 year ago
RoryFlynn2
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A-level Geography G3 (Energy) Mind Map on 3.3 - How can demand for energy be managed sustainably, created by RoryFlynn2 on 06/07/2013.

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3.3 - How can demand for energy be managed sustainably
1 India
1.1 Muppandal wind farms
1.1.1 Asia's largest turbine - can power 190,000 energy saving light bulb
1.1.2 3500 wind turbines - 1600 megawatts - power 1 million homes
1.1.3 1 turbine = US$1.5 million - very expensive
1.1.4 To overcome costs - 100% depreciation - energy costs nothing to companies that invest - do this instead of pay taxes
1.1.5 A country cannot supply all of its energy from one form - wind unpredictable in India
1.1.5.1 Solar plans - 20 megawatts by 2020
1.2 Current usage - 80% thermal, 2% nuclear, 16% hydro, 2% solar
1.3 Biogas
1.3.1 Cattle manure produces methane - can be burnt for cooking
1.3.1.1 Cleaner than wood stoves - very smokey + less deforestation
1.3.2 Relatively cheap to make + easy to build
1.3.2.1 Can be built and maintained by locals
1.3.3 Meets 57% of national demand
1.3.4 Reduces chronic diseases e.g. respiratory illnesses
1.3.5 Bi-product 'slurry' nutrient rich + can be returned to fields as short term fertiliser
1.3.5.1 Improved subsistence, increased food security and increased income
1.4 Demand expected to grow 4.6%
2 Three Gorges Dam, China
2.1 Opportunities created
2.1.1 Economic
2.1.1.1 Provides electricity to support rising demand
2.1.1.2 Provides 18,200 MW of HEP (20% of overall HEP)
2.1.1.3 Millions of jobs created
2.1.1.4 Improves navigation on Yangtze River
2.1.2 Flood Control
2.1.2.1 Reduces risk of flooding in lower Yangtze River
2.1.2.2 660km long reservoir can store 100 yr flood event
2.1.2.3 Protects 15 million people +1.5 million ha of land
2.1.3 Sustainability and climate control
2.1.3.1 HEP is clean, renewable energy
2.1.3.2 Gain will be wiped out by China's investment into coal power stations
2.2 Problems
2.2.1 Resettlement of indigenous people
2.2.1.1 1.2 - 1.9 million forcibly displaced during creation of reservoir
2.2.1.2 Govt promised cash compensation + new homes - not delivered
2.2.1.3 Fraud and corruption among local officials
2.2.1.4 Forced to live in poorer conditions
2.2.2 Environmental degradation
2.2.2.1 Reservoir water flow too slow to wash out pollutants
2.2.2.2 Declining water quality
2.2.2.2.1 habitat loss
2.2.3 Social + cultural
2.2.3.1 Flooding = loss of cultural, archaeological and historic sites
2.2.3.2 Destroy natural beauty of 3 Gorges - popular tourist site
2.2.4 Economic
2.2.4.1 Loss of 30,000 ha of productive farmland
2.2.4.2 No floods = no natural fertilisation = reliance on chemical fertilisers
2.2.4.3 Reduction in minerals at mouth = inshore fish catches fallen by 1 million tonnes/yr
2.2.4.4 Industrial activities (Coal + metal ore mines) lost from river banks from flooding
3 Carbon Trading
3.1 Set up 2007
3.2 Quotas on how much carbon countries can produce
3.3 Large carbon-producing companies given 'carbon credits'
3.3.1 If production reduced - they can sell credits to other companies = profit
3.4 If a company goes over quota - fined
3.5 Problem?
3.5.1 Lots of companies reduce - surplus of credits - lose value = less incentive to cut
4 Energy conservation
4.1 Earthship Brighton
4.1.1 Project aiming to create a model low carbon house
4.1.1.1 Off-grid, self sufficient 'green' buildings
4.1.1.1.1 Constructed using waste car tyres + other recyclables
4.1.1.2 Collect own water + use plants to treat sewage
4.1.1.3 Rain = Free water, wind = free power, sun = power + heat
4.2 Why?
4.2.1 Economic
4.2.1.1 Fuel costs
4.2.1.1.1 over £65 million/ yr in UK
4.2.2 Enivornmental
4.2.2.1 Pollutants (CO2 emissions)
4.2.3 Social
4.2.3.1 Jobs created
4.2.3.2 Easier + cheaper to run homes
4.2.3.3 Important for people with low incomes
4.2.4 Politcal
4.2.4.1 Energy security
5 Brazil biofuels
5.1 Runs many of their cars from ethanol produced by sugar cane
5.1.1 20% less carbon emissions
5.2 Working network of petrol stations supplying biofuels
5.3 Land reforms
5.3.1 Govt gives landless farmers land for biofuel production
5.3.1.1 HOWEVER - Multinationals buy the land
5.3.1.1.1 Food production reduces
5.3.1.1.1.1 Brazilian production of rice + beans fall by 15% over last 20yrs
5.3.1.1.2 Peasant farmers unable to buy land
5.3.1.1.3 Employ few people - less benefits
5.4 Biodiesel nearly doubled
6 Jatropha
6.1 1/4 of US maize crop will go to fuel
6.2 Requires 14 million ha of land
6.3 Disadvantages
6.3.1 Food prices rising due to refocus on biofuels
6.3.1.1 10% rise in food price means poverty for people in India
6.3.2 Led to local farmers' crops replaced - now relying on food handouts
6.3.2.1 Increased food security
6.3.3 Reports of farmers being thrown off land
6.3.3.1 Arrested for uprooting jatropha crop
6.3.4 Move to biofuels = displacement of people, hunger, poverty, inability to grow food for themselves
6.3.5 MEDCs suffer much less than LEDCs - TNCs/ globalisation
6.3.5.1 Biofuels for rich countries mustn't come at the expense of food for poor countries
6.4 Advantages
6.4.1 20% of diesel to come from these crops in 8yrs time
6.4.2 Provides an income
6.4.3 Can be grown on inhabitable land for normal crops
6.4.4 Can be grown on outskirts of other crops
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