Definitions of Key Words

Ffion Horrell
Mind Map by Ffion Horrell, updated more than 1 year ago
Ffion Horrell
Created by Ffion Horrell almost 4 years ago
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GCSE Physics (KEY IDEAS) Mind Map on Definitions of Key Words, created by Ffion Horrell on 03/23/2018.

Resource summary

Definitions of Key Words
  1. Chapter 1
    1. Work - the energy transferred by a force
      1. Elastic - a material able to regain its shape after it has been squished or stretched
        1. Useful Energy - Energy transferred to where it is wanted in the way it is wanted
          1. Wasted Energy - Energy that is not useful transferred
            1. Dissipation of Energy - The energy that is not usefully transferred and stored in less useful ways
              1. Power - The energy transformed in transferred per seconds. Measured in Watts
              2. Chapter 2
                1. Thermal Conductivity - Property of a material that determines the energy transfer through it by conduction
                  1. Infrared Radiation - Electromagnetic waves between microwaves and visible light on the electromagnetic scale
                    1. Black Body Radiation - The radiation emitted from a perfect black body
                      1. Perfect Black Body - a body that absorbs all the radiation that hits it
                        1. Specific Heat Capacity - Energy needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1'C
                        2. Chapter 3
                          1. Biofuel - Any fuel taking from living or recently living materials (e.g. animal waste)
                            1. Renewable Energy - Energy from natural sources that is always being replenished so never runs out
                              1. Carbon-neutral - A biofuel from a living organism that takes in as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as is released when the fuel is burned
                                1. Nuclear Fuel - Substance used in nuclear reactors that releases energy due to nuclear fission
                                  1. Nucleus - tiny positively charged object composed of protons and neutrons at the centre of every atom
                                    1. Reactor Core - The thick steel vessel used to contain fuel rods, control rods and the moderator in a nuclear fission reactor
                                      1. Geothermal Energy - Energy that comes from energy released by radioactive substances deep within the Earth
                                      2. Chapter 4
                                        1. Protons - positively charged particles
                                          1. Neutrons - Uncharged particles
                                            1. Ion - A charged atom
                                              1. Electric Field - A field around a charged object which causes a non-contact force on any other charged objects in its field
                                                1. Electrons - Tiny negatively charged particles
                                                  1. Series - Components connected in a circuit such that the same current passes through them all
                                                    1. Potential Difference - The difference of electrical potential between two points. It is measured in Volts
                                                      1. Parallel - Components connected in a circuit such that the potential difference is the same for all
                                                        1. Resistance - The potential difference divided by the current passing through the component. It is measured in Ohms
                                                          1. Diode - A non-ohmic conductor that has a much higher resistance in its reverse direction than its forward direction
                                                            1. Light Emitting Diode - A diode that emits light when it conducts
                                                              1. Thermistor - A resistor whose resistance depends on its temperature
                                                                1. Light Depending Resistor - A resistor whose resistance depends on the intensity of the light incident on it
                                                                2. Chapter 5
                                                                  1. Direct Current - Electric current in a circuit that is in one direction only
                                                                    1. Alternating Current - Electric current in a circuit that repeatedly reverses its direction
                                                                      1. Live Wire - The mains wire that has a voltage
                                                                        1. Neutral Wire - The wire of a mains circuit that is earthed at the local substation so its potential is close to zero
                                                                          1. Oscilloscope - A device used to display the shape of an electrical wave
                                                                            1. Earth Wire - The wire in a mains cable used to connect the metal case of an appliance to earth
                                                                              1. Fuse - contains a thin wire that melts and cuts the current off if too much current passes through it
                                                                              2. Chapter 6
                                                                                1. Density - Mass per unit volume of a substance
                                                                                  1. Physical Changes - A change in which no new substances are produced
                                                                                    1. Melting point - Temperature at which a pure substance melt or freezes
                                                                                      1. Boiling Point - Temperature at which a pure substance boils or condenses
                                                                                        1. Freezing Point - The temperature at which a pure substance freezes
                                                                                          1. Latent Heat - The energy transferred to or from a substance when it changes its state
                                                                                            1. Internal Energy - The energy of the particles of a substance due to their individual motion and positions
                                                                                              1. Specific Latent Heat of Fusion - Energy needed to melt 1kg of a substance with no change of temperature
                                                                                                1. Specific Latent Heat of Vaporisation - Energy needed to boil away 1kg of a substance with no change of temperature
                                                                                                2. Chapter 7
                                                                                                  1. Alpha Radiation - Alpha particles, each composed of two protons and two neutrons, emitted by unstable nuclei
                                                                                                    1. Beta Radiation - Beta particles that are high-energy electrons created in, and emitted, from unstable nuclei
                                                                                                      1. Gamma Radiation - Electromagnetic radiation emitted from unstable nuclei in radioactive substances
                                                                                                        1. Atomic Number - the number of protons in an atom
                                                                                                          1. Mass Number - The number of protons and neutrons in an atom
                                                                                                            1. Isotopes - Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
                                                                                                              1. Ionisation - Any process in which atoms become charged
                                                                                                                1. Irradiated - An object that has been exposed to ionising radiation
                                                                                                                  1. Activity - The number of unstable atoms that decay per second in a radioactive source
                                                                                                                    1. Count Rate - The number of counts per second detected by a Geiger counter
                                                                                                                      1. Half-life - Average time taken for the number of nuclei of the isotope (or mass of the isotope) in a sample to halve
                                                                                                                        1. Nuclear Fission - The process in which certain nuclei (uranium-235 and Plutonium-239) split into two fragments, releasing energy and two or three neutrons as a result
                                                                                                                          1. Chain Reaction - Reactions in which one reaction causes further reactions, which in turn cause further reactions
                                                                                                                            1. Moderator - Substance in a nuclear reactor that slows down fission neutrons
                                                                                                                              1. Nuclear Fusion - The process where small nuclei are forced together to fuse and form a larger nucleus
                                                                                                                              2. Chapter 8
                                                                                                                                1. Displacement - Distance in a given direction
                                                                                                                                  1. Vector - A physical quantity that has a magnitude and a direction (e.g. displacement)
                                                                                                                                    1. Scalar - A physical quantity that has magnitude only (e.g. mass)
                                                                                                                                      1. Magnitude - The size or amount of a physical quantity
                                                                                                                                        1. Forces - Can change the motion of an object. Measure in N, newtons
                                                                                                                                          1. Newton's Third Law - When two objects interact with each other, they exert equal and opposite forces on each other
                                                                                                                                            1. Friction - The force opposing the relative motion of two solid surfaces in contact
                                                                                                                                              1. Resultant Force - A single force that has the same effect as all the forces acting on the object
                                                                                                                                                1. Newton's First Law of Motion - If the resultant force on an object is zero, the object stays at rest if it is stationary, or it keeps moving with the same speed in the same direction
                                                                                                                                                  1. Moment - The turning effect of a force
                                                                                                                                                    1. Load - The weight of an object raised by a device used to lift the object, or the force applied by a device when it is used to shift an object
                                                                                                                                                      1. Principle of Moments - For an object in equilibrium, the sum of all the clockwise moments about any point = the sum of all the anti-clockwise moments about that point
                                                                                                                                                        1. Parallelogram of forces - A geometrical method used to find the resultant of two forces that do not act along the same line
                                                                                                                                                        2. Chapter 9
                                                                                                                                                          1. Velocity - Speed in a given direction. Measured in m/s
                                                                                                                                                            1. Acceleration - Change of velocity per second. Measured in m/s²
                                                                                                                                                              1. Deceleration - Change of velocity per second when an object slows down
                                                                                                                                                              2. Chapter 10
                                                                                                                                                                1. Newton's Second Law of Motion - The acceleration of an object is proportional to the resultant force on the object, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Inertia - The tendency of an object to stay at rest or to continue in uniform motion
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Weight - The force of gravity on an object.
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Mass - The quantity of matter in an object, a measure of the difficulty of changing the motion of an object. Measured in kg
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Gravitational Field Strength - The force of gravity of an object of mass 1kg and also the acceleration of free fall. Measured in N/kg
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Terminal Velocity - The velocity reached by an object when the drag force on it is equal and opposite to the force making it move
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Stopping Distance - The distance travelled by the vehicle in the time it takes for the driver to think and brake
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Thinking Distance - The distance travelled by the vehicle in the time it takes the driver to react
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Braking Distance - The distance travelled by a vehicle during the time it takes for its brakes to act
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Conservation of Momentum - In a closed system the total momentum before an event is equal to the total momentum after the event.
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Extension - The increase in length of a spring from its original length
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Limit of Proportionality - The limit for Hooke's law applied to the extension of a stretched spring
                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Chapter 11
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Pressure - Force per unit area. Measure in Pa (Pascals) or N/m²
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Chapter 12
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Mechanical Waves - Vibration that travels through a substance
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Electromagnetic Waves - Electric and magnetic disturbances that transfer energy from one place to another
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Transverse Waves - A wave whose oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Longitudinal Waves - Waves whose oscillations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Compression - Squeezing together
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Refraction - The change of direction of a light ray when it passes across a boundary between two transparent substances
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Wavelength - The distance from one wave crest to the next
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Amplitude - The maximum distance moved by an oscillating object from its equilibrium position
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Frequency - The number of wave crests passing a fixed point every second
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Speed - The distance travelled by each wave every second through a medium
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Reflection - The change of direction of a light ray or wave when it passes across a boundary when the ray or wave stay in the incident medium
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Transmission - a wave passing through a substance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Echo - Reflection of a sound that can be heard
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Ultrasound Waves - Sound waves at frequency greater than 20000Hz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Seismic Waves - Shock waves that travel through the Earth and across its surface as a result of an earthquake
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Chapter 13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Radio Waves - Electromagnetic waves of wavelength greater than 0.10m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Microwaves - Electromagnetic waves between infrared and radio waves in the electromagnetic spectrum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Infrared Radiation - Electromagnetic waves between visible light and microwaves on the electromagnetic spectrum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Ultraviolet Radiation - Electromagnetic waves between visible light and x-rays on the electromagnetic spectrum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. X-Rays - Electromagnetic waves smaller in length than ultraviolet waves
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. White Light - Light that includes all the colours of the spectrum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Carrier Waves - Waves used to carry an type of signal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Contrast Medium - An x-ray absorbing substance used to fill a body organ so it can be seen on a radiograph
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Charge Couple Device - An electronic device that creates an electronic signal from an optical image formed on the CCD's array of pixels
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Radiation Dose - Amount of ionising radiation a person receives
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Chapter 14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Normal - Straight line through a surface or boundary perpendicular to the surface or boundary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Angle of Incidence - Angle between the incident ray and the normal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Angle of Reflection - Angle between reflected ray and the normal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Virtual Image - An image seen in a lens or a mirror, from which light rays appear to come after being refracted by a lens or reflected by a mirror
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Specular Reflection - Reflection from a smooth surface where each ray is reflected in the same direction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Diffuse Reflection - Reflection from a rough surface so the rays are scattered in different directions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Convex Lens - A lens that makes the light rays parallel to the principal axis converge at a point
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Principal Focus - The point where light rays parallel to the principal axis of a lens are focused
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Magnifying Glass - A converging lens used to magnify small objects which must be placed between the lens and its focal point
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Concave Lens - A lens that makes light rays parallel to the axis diverge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Chapter 15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Magnetic Field - The space around a magnet or a current-carrying wire
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Electromagnet - An insulated wire wrapped round an iron bar that becomes magnetic when there is a current in the wire
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Motor Effect - When a current is passed along a wire in a magnetic field, and the wire is not parallel to the lines of the magnetic field, a force is exerted on the wire by the magnetic field
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Fleming's left-hand Rule - Gives the direction of a force on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field according to the directions of the current and the field
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Solenoid - A long coil of wire that produces a magnetic field in and around the coil when there is a current through it
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Electromagnetic Induction - The process of inducing a potential difference in a wire by moving the wire so it cuts across the lines of flux
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Generator Effect - The production of a potential difference using a magnetic field
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Alternator - An alternating current generator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Dynamo - A direct current generator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Transformer - Electrical device used to change an alternating voltage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Step-up Transformer - Transformer used to increase the size of the alternating voltage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Step-down Transformer - Transformer used to decrease the size of the alternating voltage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Chapter 16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Protostar - The concentration of dust clouds and gas in space that forms a star
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Main Sequence - The main sequence is the life stage of a star during which it radiates energy because of fusion of hydrogen nuclei in its core
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Red Giant - A star that has expanded and cooled, resulting in it becoming red and much larger and cooler than it was before it expanded
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. White Dwarf - A star that has collapsed from the red giant stage to become much hotter and denser
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Black Dwarf - A star that has faded out and gone cold
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Red Supergiant - A star much more massive than the Sun will swell out after the main sequence stage to become a red supergiant before it collapses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Supernova - The explosion of a massive star after fusion in its core ceases and the matter surrounding its core collapses on to the core and rebounds
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Neutron Star - The highly compressed core of a massive star that remains after a supernova explosion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Black Hole - An object in space that has so much mass that nothing, not even light, can escape from its gravitational field
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Centripetal Force - The resultant force towards the centre of a circle acting on an object moving in a circular path
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Redshift - Increase in the wavelength of electromagnetic waves emitted by a star or galaxy due to its motion away from us. The faster the speed of the star or galaxy, the greater its redshift
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Big Bang Theory - The theory that the universe was created in a massive explosion and that the universe has been expanding ever since
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - Electromagnetic radiation that has been travelling through space ever since it was created shortly after the big bang
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Dark Matter - Matter in a galaxy that cannot be seen. Its presence is deduced because galaxies would spin much faster if their stars were their only matter
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