Muscle Cells

dancedrill
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Biology Muscle Mind Map on Muscle Cells, created by dancedrill on 06/27/2013.

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dancedrill
Created by dancedrill over 6 years ago
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Muscle Cells
1 Characteristics of muscles
1.1 responsiveness/excitability
1.1.1 Conductivity
1.1.1.1 Contractility
1.1.1.1.1 Extensibility
1.1.1.1.1.1 elasticity
1.1.1.1.1.1.1 returns to original resting length after being stretched.
1.1.1.1.1.2 can be stretched between contractions
1.1.1.1.2 shortens when stimulated
1.1.1.2 local electrical change triggers a wave of excitation, travels along muscle fiber.
1.1.2 responds to chemical signals, stretch and electrical changes across plasma membrane
2 Connective Tissue Elements
2.1 Tendons
2.1.1 Endomysium
2.1.1.1 Perimysium
2.1.1.1.1 epimysium
2.1.1.1.1.1 con tissue surrounds entire muscle.
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 continuous with collagen fibers of tendon
2.1.1.1.2 connec tissue around muscle fascicles
2.1.1.2 connec tissue AROUND muscle cells
2.1.2 tendons are attachments between muscle and bone matrix
3 The Muscle Fiber
3.1 Sarcolemma
3.1.1 Sarcoplasm
3.1.1.1 Myofibrils
3.1.1.1.1 Multiple nuclei
3.1.1.1.1.1 mitochondria
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 SR sarcoplasmic reticulum
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 tubules
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 triad
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 a T tubule and two terminal cisterns
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 tubular infoldings of sarcolemma penetrates through the cell and exists other side
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 release of Ca2+ into cell
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 smooth ER forms network around each myofibril
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 calcium reservoir needed to contract
3.1.1.1.1.1.2 packed in between myofibrils to produce ATP
3.1.1.1.1.2 flat nuclei pressed against inside of sarcolemma
3.1.1.1.2 long protein bundles occupies the main portion of sarcoplam
3.1.1.1.2.1 Glycogen
3.1.1.1.2.1.1 stored in abudance, long chain of glucsoe, provides energy with heightened exercise.
3.1.1.1.2.2 myoglobin
3.1.1.1.2.2.1 red pigment, stores oxygen to produce ATP
3.1.1.2 cytoplasm of m. fiber
3.1.2 plasma membrane of m. fiber.
4 Myofiliments
4.1 each myofibril is a bundle of parallel protein microfilaments called myofilaments
4.2 3 kinds of Myofilaments
4.2.1 Thick filament= Myosin
4.2.1.1 hundreds of myosin molecules
4.2.1.1.1 shaped like a golf club 2 chains intertwined forms a shaft like tail, double globular head
4.2.1.1.1.1 myosin heads are cross bridges attaches to actin and pulls it with regular movement.
4.2.2 Thin filament= Actin
4.2.2.1 Fibrous (F) actin; two intertwined strands. string of globular (G) actin submunits
4.2.2.1.1 string of globular (G) actin subunits each with an active site, binds to head of myosin molecule.
4.2.2.1.2 like a double strand of pearls.
4.2.2.1.3 Tropomyosin molecules each blocking 6-7 active sites on G actin subunits
4.2.2.1.3.1 Troponin molecule- small, calcium-binding protein , a calcium receptor on each tropomyosin molecule
4.2.2.1.3.1.1 needs calcium or it wont bind.
4.2.3 Elastic Myofilaments
4.2.3.1 Titin
4.2.3.1.1 made of protien (connectin)
4.2.3.1.1.1 Huge springy protein
4.2.3.1.1.1.1 helps stabilize thick filament=myosin
4.2.3.1.1.1.1.1 prevents over stretchin
4.3 contractile proteins
4.3.1 myosin and actin are called contractile proteins they shorten the muscle fiber.
4.4 Regulatory Proteins
4.4.1 troponin and topomyosin act like a switch to determine when fiber can contract and when it can't
4.4.1.1 contraction activated by rels of calcium into sarcoplasm and its binding to troponin
4.4.1.1.1 troponin changes shape and move topomyosin off the active sites on actin
5 Striations
5.1 myosin and actin are proteins that occur in all cells
5.1.1 function in cellular motility, mitosis, transport of intracellular material
5.1.1.1 organized in a precise way in skeletal and cardiac muscles.
5.1.1.1.1 A band= anisotropic. protein is myosin
5.1.1.1.1.1 part of A band where thick and thin filaments overlap
5.1.1.1.1.1.1 H band in the middle of A band, these are thick filaments
5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 M line is in the middle of the H band
5.1.1.1.2 I band= isotropic. protein is actin.
5.1.1.1.2.1 alternating lighter band the way the bands reflect polarized light
5.1.1.1.3 Z Disc
5.1.1.1.3.1 provides anchorage for thin filaments and elastic filaments
5.1.1.1.3.2 Sarcomere
5.1.1.1.3.2.1 the segment of the myofibril one z disc to the next is one sarcomere

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