1.1.1 Jobs which are boring, repetitive in factories have been lost because they have been replaced by robots.
22.214.171.124 Old-style office jobs, e.g. typist and filing clerk, are replaced now by computer systems that
can do the same tasks more efficiently. (e.g. mail merge now compared to each letter being typed
126.96.36.199.1 Supermarkets don't need people to help count the cost of peoples items because they now use automatic stock control
188.8.131.52.1.1 Same with banks they do not need many people anymore because of automated systems such as
ATMs that perform many of the tasks of traditional bank staff.
1.2 Jobs have been created, although some have been replaced by ICT
1.2.1 Computer programmer/engineer
184.108.40.206 ICT technician or
1.2.2 Website designer
2.1 ICT is constantly changing therefore people
must be trained and tested on their IT skills
so they can use new equipment and
software. This is not easy and companies
must offer training to meet the needs of the
staff, so their businesses can be more
2.1.1 Training can be done using the internet or
interactive CDs. Interactive CDs allow staff to learn
at their own pace and not have to travel to a college
2.1.2 Some companies produce their own
computer-assisted learning (CAL) software, which
makes sure the staff learn exactly the right skills to
be able to carry out their work
3 Working practises
3.1 ICT has now changed the way people communicate with eachother
220.127.116.11 People take their phones everywhere and can be
used anywhere therefore don't have to be contacted
in their office
18.104.22.168 Email is used to send messages. There is
less need to write a letter and post it. If
copies of a document need to be sent to
another office, they can be sent using a fax
3.1.3 The hours that people work are now increasing, because laptops are
being taken home or used on the train commuting to work, to catch
up on unfinished tasks.
4.1 Working from home and using ICT
methods to communicate with their place
of business is called teleworking, there are
an increasing number of people doing this.
4.1.1 Advantages are there are no travel expenses, flexible hours where you
chose when to work and no time wasting travelling to work.
4.1.2 Disadvantages are that you can get easily distracted, Less social interaction
and more isolation for workers and Difficulties for management in checking
whether work is being properly carried out.
22.214.171.124.1 includes video links and is where meetings are held using
computers linked to the internet and the participants can
communicate with each other using microphones and
speakers to talk and cameras to see each other.
126.96.36.199.1.1 Reducing impact on ICT on Environment
188.8.131.52.1.1.1 Store documents on hard- drive rather using paper to save forest resources
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Reduce the amount of energy consumed by switching off the computer or
peripheral devices when not in use.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1 ICT equipment tends to generate heat, open a window rather than switch
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.2 Businesses should consider using video-conferencing
rather than sending delegates to meetings. This reduces
the carbon footprint of meetings by cutting down on
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.3 Dispose of old equipment carefully. If the equipment is dumped in landfill,
harmful chemicals can get into the water supply to contaminate growing
18.104.22.168.1.1.2 Manage the life-cycle of ICT equipment carefully by
upgrading where possible rather than replacing the
entire piece. Manufacturing of ICT equipment uses
natural resources and generates carbon emissions.
22.214.171.124.2 Advantages It is not necessary for people to travel to a meeting,
saving time and removing the need for expenses.
126.96.36.199.2.1 Meetings can be called at short notice and it does
not matter where is the world people might be, as
long as they have access to a videoconferencing
188.8.131.52.3 Disadvantages Many people prefer to meet face-to-face with others
when important decisions need to be made.
184.108.40.206.3.1 The equipment needs to be bought. Microphones,
speakers and video cameras are required on each of
the computers and the necessary software must be
220.127.116.11.3.1.1 Although it is improving, the technology is not yet perfect and
the sound and pictures may not be completely synchronised
and may appear a little “jerky”.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 Political impact on ICT
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1 ICT is making it easier for Governments to
control and to monitor what they are doing.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1.1 CCTV cameras are everywhere
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.1.1 Communications from cell phones, emails and text
messaging can be monitored
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.1.2 Satellites with cameras so powerful they are
capable of seeing what you are reading or
identifying a car number plate from above.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.2 Mobile phone signals and debit and credit card
use can also be used to trace our movements.
5 Legal issues
5.1 The development of ICT has created new
types of crime!
5.1.1 The problem of hackers gaining unauthorised access to sensitive
or important data was tackled by the Government when it
introduced the Computer Misuse Act in 1990. This defined hacking
as a crime; anybody caught accessing files that they are not
entitled to on a network can expect to receive a fine or even a
prison sentence. This act also makes the creation and spreading of
viruses a criminal offence
5.1.2 Identity theft has also increased as criminals have
been able to steal information about people from
banks online etc.
5.1.3 There is also a law that makes it illegal to copy
software without the permission of the holder of
the copyright. Software companies usually issue a
licence when you buy software. Making illegal
copies of software is called “software piracy”.