Ethnicity - Internal factors that affect differential educational achievement

Leanna V
Mind Map by Leanna V, updated more than 1 year ago
Leanna V
Created by Leanna V over 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Ethnicity - Internal factors that affect differential educational achievement, created by Leanna V on 10/24/2014.

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Ethnicity - Internal factors that affect differential educational achievement
1 Labelling and teacher racism
1.1 (INTERACTIONIST VIEW) GILLBORN & YOUDELL found that teachers were quicker to discipline black pupils than others for the same behaviour and it's due to the teachers' racialised expectations. They often misinterpreted black pupils' behaviour as threatening which cause the pupils to retaliate. Black boys have a higher exclusion level from school, possibly because (BOURNE) schools tend to see black boys as a threat and start to label them negatively which leads to exclusion. FOSTER found that stereotypes of black pupils can lead to them being placed in lower sets even if they have the same ability as pupils in a higher set. This can lead to lower levels of achievement.
1.2 WRIGHT studied a multi-ethnic primary school and showed that Asian pupils are also victims of labelling. The school claimed to have equal opportunities for everyone but teachers were quite ethnocentric - British culture and Standard English were superior. Teachers assumed that Asians would have a poor grasp of English, so they left them out and used simplistic English towards them. As a result, Asian pupils felt isolated because teachers easily ignored them. The pupils were marginalised and prevented from fully participating, especially Asian girls.
2 Pupil responses and subcultures
2.1 (rejecting negative labels) FULLER studies a group of Year 11 black girls in a London comprehensive school and they were high achievers. The girls channelled their anger about being labelled into the pursuit of educational success. They were friends with the black girls in the lower streams. They worked conscientiously but appeared not to - they acted this way in order to avoid ridicule from the black boys who were mainly anti school. The girls also had a positive attitude towards academics. They maintained a positive self-image by relying on their own efforts. They displayed NO SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY.
2.2 MAC AN GHAILL studied Black and Asian 6th form students. How they responded to their negative labels was based on their ethnic group, gender and the nature of their former schools. E.g. some girls who came from an all girls school had greater academic commitment and were therefore not affected by negative labels.
2.3 MIRZA studied ambitious Black girls who faced teacher racism, however they failed to achieve their ambitions due to their coping strategies being restrictive of their opportunities. She found that teachers discouraged black pupils from being ambitious. Types of teacher racism: THE COLOUR-BLIND, teachers who believe all pupils are equal but in practice allow racism to go unchallenged. THE LIBERAL CHAUVINISTS, teachers who believe Black pupils are culturally deprived and have low expectations of them. THE OVERT RACISTS, teachers who believe Blacks are inferior and actively discriminate against them. This meant that most of the girls' time was spent trying to avoid the teachers' negative attitudes.
2.4 SEWELL studied a boys' secondary school and found that teachers had a stereotype of 'black machismo' which leads to Black boys are more likely to be excluded from school. Responses to racist stereotyping: THE REBELS, most visible and influential group but a small minority. They reject both goals and school rules, as well as conforming to the 'macho' stereotype. They believed they were superior. THE CONFORMISTS, the largest group. They were keen to succeed and had friends from different ethnic groups. They were not part of a subculture and anxious to avoid being stereotyped. THE RETREATISTS, tiny minority of isolated individuals who were disconnected from everyone and school, also were despised by the rebels. THE INNOVATORS, second largest group. Pro education but anti-school. They valued success but did not seek approval of the teachers.
2.5 CRITICISM. There are outside school factors such as the media, family and the government that can affect how well a student does. It is not only the self-fulfilling prophecy that can limit students' opportunities.
3 The ethnocentric curriculum
3.1 An attitude or policy that gives priority to the culture/viewpoint of one particular ethnic group.
3.1.1 TROYNA &WILLIAMS describes the curriculum in British schools as ethnocentric. DAVID says the National Curriculum is 'specifically British' as it teaches the culture of the 'host community', while ignoring non-European languages, etc. BALL says the National Curriculum ignores cultural/ethnic diversity. COARD explains that this kind of curriculum can lead to under achievement e.g. British history shows them as bringing civilisation to the 'primitive' people, which undermines the children's self-esteem.
3.1.2 CRITICISM. STONE argues that black children don't all suffer from low'self-esteem.
4 Institutional racism
4.1 TROYNA & WILLIAMS look at how schools and colleges as a whole discriminate. INDIVIDUAL RACISM: results from the prejudiced views of individuals. INSTITUTIONAL RACISM: discrimination that is built into the way a school/college operates. HATCHER found that the schools he studied give low priority to race issues. There is no formal channel of communication between school governors and ethnic minority parents. As a result, there is nothing done about the lack of language support.
5 Selection and segregation
5.1 GILLBORN argues that marketisation allows for negative stereotypes to influence decisions on school admissions. MOORE & DAVENPORT found that schools discriminated against 'problem students' by altering the admissions process so that it favours the white, M/C pupils. (ETHNICALLY STRATIFIED EDUCATION SYSTEM).
5.2 A report from THE COMMISSION FOR RACIAL EQUALITY identifies biases in the British education. Ethnic minority children are more likely to end up in unpopular schools. This is because there is racist bias in interviews for school places, lack of information/forms in minority languages and ethnic minority parents are often unaware of how the school application system works.
6 EVANS argued that we have to look at ethnicity, class and gender to fully understand the relationship between ethnicity and achievement. CONNOLLY studied 5/6 year olds in a multi-ethnic primary school. Pupils and teachers construct masculinity depending on a child's ethnicity. Black boys were seen as more disruptive and were punished more. This led to them seeking status in non-academic ways such as playing football. Asian pupils were seen as passive and seen as conformists. The Asian boys were seen as more keen and when they misbehaved they were seen as being immature. They were picked on by other boys to assert their own masculinity so people saw Asian boys as more feminine and vulnerable.
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