Mind Map by , created about 5 years ago

A Levels PE Mind Map on Aggression, created by Hannah96 on 11/03/2014.

Created by Hannah96 about 5 years ago
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1 Baron (1977) defined aggression as any form of behaviour directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment.
2 Gill (1986) identified key features for an act to be aggressive. It must actually happen, either physically or verbally. It must harm another person either physically or emotionally. It must be intentional.
3 Sporting actions which possess the characteristics can be classified as hostile or reactive aggression. Terms used to describe aggression which is seen as acceptable is channelled aggression or instrumental aggression and assertive behaviour.
3.1 Channelled aggression involves behaviour that is within the rules of the game, which has the aim to successfully complete the skill but has the side effect of inflicting harm or physical pain. e.g. rugby.
4 Husman and Silva (1984) suggested that assertive behaviour isn't intended to cause harm nor injury, are goal directed, are within the rules, laws and spirit of the game, only use legitimate force.
5 Causes of Aggression
5.1 Can depend on a number of things, not all will apply to all performers; it depends on the situational factors.
5.2 Nature of the sport
5.3 Rivalry between teams
5.4 High arousal levels
5.5 Importance of the event/ Expectations
5.6 Nature and proximity of the crowd
5.7 Venue
5.8 Frustration at personal performance
5.9 Score line
5.10 Poor Officiating
5.11 Copying role models
5.12 Extrinsic Rewards
6 Reducing and Controlling Aggressive Behaviour
6.1 Not all strategies will be suitable for all performers but must be applied differently depending on the situation. The responsibility for eliminating aggressive behaviour should be shared between the player, teammates, peer group, coaches, spectators and the media and sponsors.
6.2 Punish aggressive acts using penalties, sin bins, fines etc.
6.3 Increase peer group pressure, highlight responsibility to the team.
6.4 Remove the offending player from the situation
6.5 High quality officials who offer consistent interpretation of the laws
6.6 Develop affective stress management techniques
6.7 Lower levels of arousal via relaxation techniques
6.8 Positive reinforcement and rewards for non-aggressive play
6.9 Highlight non aggressive role models
6.10 Reduce the importance of the event and emphasis on winning
6.11 Increase personal fitness levels to delay the effects of fatigue
6.12 Set performance goals rather than outcome goals
6.13 Educate players on the differences between aggression and assertion
7 Theories of Aggression
7.1 Instinct Theory
7.1.1 Fraud believed it was due to our evolutionary development - our need to dominate and our death instinct. This energy which is built up has to be released at some point to maintain our wellbeing - its a cathartic release.
7.1.2 Aggressive Behaviour is innate - Nature Approach, genetically inherited and inevitable.
7.1.3 Rather than displaying aggression in an inappropriate situation the individual will wait for a more suitable time.
7.1.4 This has been criticised because; human aggression usually isn't spontaneous, its often learnt due to culture, levels of aggression increase during sporting participation, no biological innate characteristics have been identified, and lastly rather than being warriors, humans were hunter gatherers.
7.2 Frustration - Aggression Hypothesis
7.2.1 Dollard (1939) suggested an interactionist approach. He argued that individuals display aggressive behaviour due to innate characteristics and learning from others, becoming aggressive when their goal is blocked - leading to frustration.
7.2.2 Aggression always leads to frustration, and frustration is always caused by aggression. If they are able to release their frustration it has a cathartic effect, if they are punished however they get more frustrated. Their drive may increase due to a number of factors, e.g. an opponent doing well, this would increase their frustration and a bad tackle could result, they then feel satisfied, but if they are punished further aggressive cats may follow.
7.2.3 This has been criticised because; not all frustration leads to aggression, not all aggression is caused by frustration - could be learned, it doesn't account for situational factors or individual differences.
7.3 Cue Arousal Theory
7.3.1 Berkowitz (1969) This approach incorporates arousal into this explanation for aggressive behaviour. The Theory suggests that frustration will cause arousal to increase but aggression will only occur if their are socially acceptable cues present, e.g. they may commit an act if they think the official isn't watching or their coach reinforces such behaviour.
7.3.2 Some sports related cues are more likely to lead to aggression that others. For example; People associated with aggressive acts (coach, player, fans), Sports associated with aggression (contact sports), Places associated with aggression (venue linked to previous experience of violence), Objects associated with aggression (bats, boxing gloves etc.)
7.3.3 This may be able to explain why some players are able to maintain their composure, control their arousal levels and not act aggressively. This is a more valuable explanation for aggression. Rather than it being simply an innate response to an external stimulus, aggression is actually linked to learning, and will only occur when suitable environmental cues are present.
7.4 Social Learning Theory
7.4.1 Bandura (1966) Adopts the nurture approach. Proposes that aggressive behaviour is learned through observing others and copying their actions. If reinforced the copied actions are repeated in similar situations - Vicarious Experience.
7.4.2 Due to the media many people watch elite performers competing in their sport, sometimes they will be aggressive and they aren't punished, others then copy their actions believing its acceptable to act in that manner. They may receive many forms of reinforcement that encourage such behaviours from team players, parents, coaches etc. If players are taught unacceptable behaviours then ultimately we should be able to teach them acceptable behaviours to control arousal levels and modify behaviour if the correct type of reinforcement is provided.
7.4.3 While its clear that many aggressive acts are copied from significant others and are more likely to be repeated if reinforced. It doesn't explain how some people can be aggressive without observing others if placed in a particular situation.

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