Principles of Marine Biology

Melle Ostseekind
Mind Map by Melle Ostseekind, updated more than 1 year ago
Melle Ostseekind
Created by Melle Ostseekind over 5 years ago
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Description

Mindmap of Prof. Smetacek's lecture

Resource summary

Principles of Marine Biology
1 Climate & Earth
1.1 age: 4.6 billion years
1.2 climate shifts due to changes in atmospheric composition
1.2.1 oxygen level
1.2.1.1 oxygen since 2.5 by
1.2.1.2 1 % during boring billion (2-1 bya)
1.2.1.3 today 21 %
1.2.2 minimum CO2: ~ 180 ppm
1.2.3 maximum CO2: ~ 280 ppm
1.2.4 today's CO2: > 400 ppm like 25 mya
1.2.4.1 major processes of CO2 uptake
1.2.4.1.1 weathering
1.2.4.1.2 diatom growth
1.2.4.1.2.1 biological carbon pump
1.2.5 amounts of carbon
1.2.5.1 atmosphere: ~ 800 gt
1.2.5.2 land biota: 550 gt

Annotations:

  • mostly wood!
1.2.5.3 ocean biota: 3 gt
1.3 warming easier than cooling
1.4 LGM: 20,000 years ago
1.4.1 sea level + 130 m
2 Evolution
2.1 Selection
2.1.1 bottom-up
2.1.1.1 physico-chemical properties of environment
2.1.2 top-down
2.1.2.1 mortality due to grazers and predators
2.1.3 phytoplankton
2.1.3.1 no space holding
2.1.3.1.1 defence driving speciation
2.1.4 benthic and terrestrial plants
2.1.4.1 space holding
2.1.4.1.1 growth driving speciation
2.1.5 speciation
2.1.5.1 allopatric

Annotations:

  • spatial separation, inbreeding impossible
2.1.5.2 sympatric

Annotations:

  • no separation, but no sexual interaction (e.g. because of mutation in sex organs)
2.2 shapes of plankton
2.2.1 3 P's
2.2.1.1 pathogens
2.2.1.2 predators
2.2.1.3 parasites
3 Biological carbon pump
3.1 air/sea CO2 exchange
3.2 phytoplankton growth
3.2.1 death
3.2.1.1 microbial decomposition
3.2.1.1.1 respiration
3.2.2 nutrient cycles
3.2.2.1 nutrients
3.2.2.1.1 macro-
3.2.2.1.1.1 C, O, H, N, S, P, Si, K, Na, Cl
3.2.2.1.2 micro-
3.2.2.1.2.1 Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo, Co, I etc.
3.2.2.1.2.1.1 Fe
3.2.2.1.2.1.1.1 key limiting nutrient
3.2.2.1.2.1.1.1.1 HNLC-regions
3.2.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 high nutrient, low chlorophyll
3.2.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 upwelling regions
3.2.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 high N and P conc.
3.2.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 limited PP growth
3.2.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.2 subarctic Pacific
3.2.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.3 equatorial Pacific
3.2.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.4 entire Southern Ocean
3.2.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.4.1 iron fertilization experiments
3.2.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.4.1.1 deep C export due to induced PP blooms
3.2.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.4.1.2 3 Mio t FeSO4/y would be needed
3.2.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.4.1.3 EISENEX
3.2.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.4.1.4 EIFEX
3.2.2.1.2.1.1.1.1.4.1.5 LOHAFEX
3.2.2.2 production
3.2.2.2.1 new
3.2.2.2.1.1 based on nitrate uptake
3.2.2.2.1.1.1 accumulation of biomass
3.2.2.2.1.1.1.1 bloom of phytoplankton
3.2.2.2.2 regenerated
3.2.2.2.2.1 based on remineralisation
3.2.2.2.2.1.1 no increase in biomass
3.2.2.2.2.2 greatest part of oceanic production
3.2.2.3 nitrogen cycle
3.2.2.3.1 N2-fixation
3.2.2.3.2 denitrification
3.2.2.3.3 nitrification
3.2.2.3.4 nitrogen excretion
3.3 zooplankton feeding on phytoplankton
3.3.1 respiration
3.3.2 vertical migration
3.3.3 faeces
3.3.4 death
3.3.4.1 microbial decomposition
3.3.4.1.1 respiration
3.4 Plankton
3.4.1 Phytoplankton
3.4.1.1 Cyanobacteria
3.4.1.1.1 Prochlorococcus (Chl. b)
3.4.1.1.2 Synechococcus
3.4.1.1.3 colonial genera
3.4.1.1.3.1 Trichodesmium
3.4.1.1.3.2 Anabaena
3.4.1.1.3.3 Nostoc
3.4.1.2 Diatoms
3.4.1.2.1 diplpoid
3.4.1.2.2 no flagellae
3.4.1.2.3 chitin bristles
3.4.1.2.4 cell wall of amorphous silica

Annotations:

  • [(SiO2)n(H2O)]
3.4.1.2.4.1 shape
3.4.1.2.4.1.1 pennate
3.4.1.2.4.1.1.1 raphid

Annotations:

  • slid in cell wall used for locomotion
3.4.1.2.4.1.1.2 araphid

Annotations:

  • no slid
3.4.1.2.4.1.2 centric
3.4.1.2.5 40-50 % of marine primary production
3.4.1.2.6 toxic for some animals

Annotations:

  • release aldehyde when ingested
3.4.1.3 Haptophytes/Prymnesiophytes
3.4.1.3.1 nanoflagellates
3.4.1.3.2 Phaeocystis

Annotations:

  • ~ 10 species ~ 3 make colonies start life at the spines of diatoms
3.4.1.3.3 Coccolithophorids
3.4.1.3.3.1 calcaerous plates
3.4.1.3.3.1.1 calcite
3.4.1.4 Dinoflagellates
3.4.1.4.1 mixotrophic
3.4.1.4.2 haploid

Annotations:

  • sexual and asexual reproduction
3.4.1.4.3 3 feeding modi
3.4.1.4.3.1 direct engulfment
3.4.1.4.3.2 peduncle feeding
3.4.1.4.3.3 palium feeding
3.4.1.4.4 toxic species
3.4.1.4.4.1 harmful algal blooms
3.4.2 Protozooplankton
3.4.2.1 Kitenoplastids/Bodonids
3.4.2.2 Choanoflagellates

Annotations:

  • base of animal lineage
3.4.2.3 heterotrophic nano-/and dinoflagellates
3.4.2.4 Tintinnids

Annotations:

  • ciliates; can't be digested, protein can't be broken down
3.4.2.4.1 Choreotrichs
3.4.2.4.2 Mesodinium
3.4.2.5 Radiolaria
3.4.2.5.1 internal silica skeleton
3.4.2.5.2 much older than diatoms
3.4.2.6 Acantharia
3.4.2.6.1 celestite skeleton

Annotations:

  • SrSO4
3.4.2.6.1.1 well protected
3.4.2.6.2 predators

Annotations:

  • feed on copepods etc.
3.4.2.7 Foraminifera
3.4.2.7.1 hundreds of benthic, ~46 planktonic species
3.4.2.7.2 calcite/aragonite
3.4.2.7.3 diploid

Annotations:

  • sexual reproduction, not only sexual phase!
3.4.2.7.4 lunar cycle
3.4.2.7.5 us. predators
3.4.3 Metazooplankton

Annotations:

  • Copepods, Euphausiids, Coelenterata, Ctenophores, Tunicates, Pteropods, Chaetognaths etc.
3.4.3.1 Copepods
3.4.3.1.1 cosmopolitan genera

Annotations:

  • Pseudocalanus, Oithona, Euchaeta, Calanus, Metridia, Acartia, Centropages
3.4.3.1.2 6 nauplii and 6 copepodid stages
3.4.3.1.3 about 2/3 muscles: thoracopods
3.4.3.2 2 types
3.4.3.2.1 watery

Annotations:

  • salps & jellies
3.4.3.2.2 muscular

Annotations:

  • copepods & krill
3.4.3.3 Cladocerans (Daphnids)
3.4.3.3.1 parthenogenetic
3.4.3.3.2 filter-feeders
3.4.3.3.3 slow swimmers
3.4.3.3.4 3 marine genera
3.4.3.3.4.1 Penilia
3.4.3.3.4.2 Evadne
3.4.3.3.4.3 Podon
3.4.3.4 Euphausiids

Annotations:

  • shrimp-like, e.g. krill large swarms
3.4.3.5 Pteropods
3.4.3.5.1 pelagic gastropods
3.4.3.5.2 aragonite shells
3.4.4 size classes

Annotations:

  • pico: 0.2-2 µm nano: 2-20µm micro: 20-200 µm meso: 0.2-20 mm macro: 2-20 cm mega: 20-200 cm
4 Magic numbers in the biosphere
4.1 glacial/interglacial conc.
4.1.1 CO2: 180-290 ppmv
4.1.2 CH4: 350-650 ppbv
4.2 Redfield ratios
4.2.1 Pelagic C:N:P
4.2.1.1 106:16:1
4.3 deep-sea DOC conc.
4.3.1 42 µmol/l
4.4 surface ocean bacterial vol.
4.4.1 10^6/ml
4.5 virus:bacteria ratio
4.5.1 10:1
4.6 non-sea-salt-sulphate (biogenic) flux to Antarctica
4.6.1 3 mg/m2 y
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