Humoral Immunity - Antibody Response II - B-cell response

jyghowes
Mind Map by jyghowes, updated more than 1 year ago
jyghowes
Created by jyghowes about 6 years ago
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Mind Map on Humoral Immunity - Antibody Response II - B-cell response, created by jyghowes on 11/09/2014.

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Humoral Immunity - Antibody Response II - B-cell response
1 Primary Antibody Response
1.1 1. Clonal Selection
1.1.1 antigen enters + localized in secondary lymphoid tissue
1.1.1.1 here: attaches to specific B cell antigen receptors
1.1.1.1.1 T-independent (polysaccharide) antigens directly activate B cells to make IgM antibodies
1.1.1.1.2 T-dependent protein antigens only activate B cells with help of Th cells
1.1.1.1.2.1 to activate Th cells , antigen is processed by APCs and presented to Th cells on MHCII
1.1.1.1.2.1.1 Hence Clonal selection - antigen selects specific B cells to take part in antibody response
1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 selected B cells do rapid clonal proliferation = increase no. antigen-specific cells to deal w. pathogen
1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 some become memory cells
1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.2 many become plasma cells
1.2 Time taken for process
1.2.1 I) Lag period before detectable antibody levels
1.2.1.1 cellular events take time
1.2.2 ii) Log phase
1.2.2.1 increasing antibody amounts
1.2.2.1.1 as more cells divide = more plasma cells
1.2.3 iii) Plateau phase
1.2.3.1 bound antigen is removed
1.2.3.1.1 lymphocytes no longer stimulated
1.2.3.1.1.1 antibody decline in serum
1.2.3.1.1.1.1 most plasma cells die after completing function
2 Affinity Maturation
2.1 Germinal centres
2.1.1 made after B cell activation
2.1.2 in secondary lymphoid tissue
2.1.3 where B cells undergo
2.1.3.1 class switching
2.1.3.2 clonal expansion
2.1.3.3 somatic hypermutation of variable region genes
2.1.3.3.1 espec. Complementary Determining Regions (part that makes contact with antigen)
2.1.3.3.2 random mutations = occasional cells produced with higher affinity receptor
2.1.3.3.2.1 rescued through recognition of antigen that are on the immune complex on FDC
2.1.3.3.2.1.1 these B cells proliferates
2.1.3.3.2.1.1.1 some become memory cellos
2.1.3.3.2.1.1.2 o/ become plasma cell precursors
2.1.3.3.2.1.1.2.1 leave germinal centres
2.1.3.3.2.1.1.2.1.1 become plasma cells in lymph nodes' medulla or spleen's red pulp
2.1.3.3.2.2 others bind less well and can't stimulate b cells
2.1.3.3.2.2.1 these die by apoptosis in germinal centre
2.1.3.3.2.2.1.1 removed by phagocytic macrophages
2.1.3.4 selection of high affinity clones leading to affinity maturation of antibody response
3 Class Switching
3.1 1st antibodies made in 1ary response - IgM
3.1.1 as IgM B cells stimulated to divide = plasma cells secreting IgM
3.2 Cytokines - from Th cells
3.2.1 influence some B cells
3.2.1.1 to switch to IgG, IgA or IgE during proliferation
3.2.1.1.1 some develop into memory cells
3.2.1.1.2 e.g. cytokin IL-4: cause switch to make IgE
3.2.1.2 driving proliferation + plasma cell differentiation
4 Polyclonal
4.1 bc microbe has many diff. antigens
4.1.1 each w/ several epitopes
5 Immunoloical Memory
5.1 adapative immune response
5.1.1 many memory cells remain after primary response
5.1.1.1 can respond to same antigen
5.1.1.1.1 so secondary immune response = bigger and faster
5.2 none/little w/out Th cells
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