Hard hearing

heba magdi
Mind Map by heba magdi, updated more than 1 year ago
heba magdi
Created by heba magdi almost 2 years ago
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Description

Mind Map on Hard hearing, created by heba magdi on 11/21/2018.

Resource summary

Hard hearing
1 External ear
1.1 Collects sound waves and channel them down the auditory channel
1.1.1 Vibration of the tympanic membrane
2 Middle ear
2.1 Auditory ossicles
2.1.1 Malleus
2.1.1.1
2.1.1.1.1 Sound waves traveling through air must be converted into pressure waves in fluid.
2.1.1.1.2 When the sound waves move the tympanic membrane, the chain of ossicles also moves, pushing the footplate of the stapes into the oval window and displaces the fluid in the cochlea
2.1.2 Incus
2.1.2.1
2.1.3 Stapes
2.1.3.1
3 Inner ear
3.1 Sensory organ
3.1.1 Cochlea
3.1.1.1 3 coiled tubes
3.1.1.1.1
3.1.1.1.1.1 Scala vestibuli
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Contains perilymph
3.1.1.1.1.2 Scala media
3.1.1.1.1.2.1 Contains endolymph
3.1.1.1.1.3 Scala tympani
3.1.1.1.1.3.1 Contains perilymph
3.1.1.1.1.4 Reissner's membrane
3.1.1.1.1.5 Basilar membrane
3.1.1.1.1.5.1 Organ of Corti lies on it
3.1.1.1.1.5.1.1 Inner hair cells
3.1.1.1.1.5.1.2 Outer hair cells
3.1.1.1.1.5.1.3
3.1.1.1.1.6 Helicotrema
3.1.1.1.1.6.1 Point of communication between the scala vestibuli and scala tympani. Scala media does not communicate with these two scala.
4 Tympanic membrane
4.1 Separates external ear from internal ear
4.1.1
4.1.1.1 Pearly gray and translucent, with a sharp light reflex and bony landmarks
5 Hearing loss
5.1 Conductive hearing loss
5.1.1 sound waves are not adequately conducted through the external or middle ear
5.1.1.1 Cause: Damage to cochlea, CN VIII or central auditory connections.
5.1.1.2 Air conduction> bone conduction
5.2 Sensorineural hearing loss
5.2.1 Sound waves are not translated into nerve signals and not recognized as sound sensations by the brain.
5.2.1.1 Etiology: physical blockade of the ear canal
5.2.1.2 Bone conduction> air conduction
5.3 Presbycusis
5.3.1 partial loss of hearing as a result of loss of hair cells
5.3.1.1 Caused due to aging
6 Infections of the ear
6.1 Otitis externa
6.1.1 Inflammation of the external ear
6.1.1.1 Acute loxalized otitis externa
6.1.1.1.1 Furunculitis which leads to furuncle formation
6.1.1.1.1.1 Staphylococcus aureus
6.1.1.2 Acute diffuse otitis externa
6.1.1.2.1 Swimmer's ear
6.1.1.2.1.1 Most common form
6.1.1.2.1.1.1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa
6.2 Otitis media
6.2.1 Inflammation of the middle ear
6.2.1.1 Acute otitis media
6.2.1.1.1 Causative agent
6.2.1.1.1.1 Streptococcus pneumonia
6.2.1.1.1.2 Haemophilus influenza
6.2.1.1.1.3 Moraxella catarahlis
6.2.1.1.2 Complication
6.2.1.1.2.1 Cholesteatoma formation
6.2.1.1.2.1.1 Tympanic membrane retraction
6.2.1.1.2.1.1.1 Lead to pocket that protrudes into the middle ear
6.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 dead skin cells accumulate in pocket
6.2.1.2 Acute otitis media with effusion
6.2.1.3 Chronic otitis media
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