IB HL Geog: Food and Health - Famine in the Horn of Africa 2011-2012

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Mind Map on IB HL Geog: Food and Health - Famine in the Horn of Africa 2011-2012, created by mcgowan-w-10 on 14/11/2014.

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IB HL Geog: Food and Health - Famine in the Horn of Africa 2011-2012
1 Background
1.1 Food security
1.1.1 "exists when all people, at all times have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life."
1.2 Famine
1.2.1 “a situation where acute malnutrition rates among children exceed 30%, more than 2 people per 10 000 die per day, and people are not able to access food and other basic necessities.”
1.3 Sub-Saharan Africa has highest prevalence of malnutrition: 265mn
1.4 67mn population
1.4.1 87% live in rural areas
1.4.1.1 Relies on subsistence agriculture
1.4.2 50% absolute poverty
2 Social
2.1 Development
2.1.1 Lack resources/resilience to deal with drought
2.2 Rebels
2.2.1 Al-Shabaab group in southern Somalia compounded drought
2.2.1.1 Expended resources + infrastructural damage
2.3 Refugees
2.3.1 Somalia to Dadaab refugee camp
2.3.1.1 Additional burden on lacking food stocks
2.4 Health
2.4.1 Lack of food
2.4.1.1 Decreased immunity
2.4.1.1.1 Exposure to diseases
2.4.1.1.1.1 Malaria (8mn)
2.4.1.1.1.2 Cholera (5mn)
3 Environmental
3.1 Drought
3.1.1 Unusually strong La Niña
3.1.1.1 Interrupted seasonal rains for two consecutive seasons
3.1.1.1.1 Precip. rate during rainy season: <30% average of 1995-2010
3.1.1.1.2 Lack of vegetation + dry topsoil = prone to wind erosion
3.1.2 Year before famine: driest in Horn of Africa for 60 years
3.1.3 Crop failure + loss of livestock
3.1.3.1 40-60% in some areas
3.2 Aridity
3.2.1 Latitude = Hadley cells
3.2.2 Rain shadow of Northern Ethiopian mountains
4 Demographic
4.1 Population rising higher (3.2%) in rural areas
4.1.1 Higher yield required from subsistence farming to support population
4.1.1.1 Puts unsustainable strain on carrying capacity of land
5 Political
5.1 Land Tenure
5.1.1 Ethiopian citizens do not own the land
5.1.1.1 Distributed according to family size
5.1.1.1.1 Less responsibility over desertified land
5.2 Socialist country
5.2.1 Encourages food aid
5.2.1.1 Lack of food aid from USA
5.2.1.1.1 Now supplies half of Africa's food aid
5.3 Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam
5.3.1 Provides 1,800mW of electricity
5.3.1.1 Double current Ethiopian generating capacity
5.3.2 Deprives water and sediment for fields downstream
5.3.2.1 Lack of crops
5.3.2.1.1 Exacerbates famine
5.3.2.2 Expected to lead to a significant change in the fishery
5.3.2.2.1 Could result in a reduction of food
5.3.3 Relocates 20,000 people
5.4 Al-Shabaab militia
5.4.1 Banned 16 humanitarian agencies including UNHCR from operating in its territory
6 Economic
6.1 Drop in labour demand
6.1.1 Reduced household income
6.2 Loss of capital
6.2.1 Livestock deaths
6.3 Poor harvest
6.3.1 Rise in cereal prices
6.3.1.1 Reduction in purchasing power across region
6.3.2 Livestock prices and wages fell
6.3.2.1 Livestock = 5% GDP
6.4 Government intervention
6.4.1 Lack of investment in infrastructure
6.4.1.1 Ineffective food distribution
6.4.2 Buys food from farmers at fixed prices
6.4.2.1 Often below market equilibrium
6.4.2.2 Excess demand
6.5 Debt repayment
6.5.1 Need for foreign currency reserves
6.5.1.1 Need for cash crops as exports
6.5.1.1.1 Reduction in amount of food available to locals
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