Language, Truth and Logic

Mollie Bedford
Mind Map by Mollie Bedford, updated more than 1 year ago
Mollie Bedford
Created by Mollie Bedford about 5 years ago


An Overview of A.J, Ayer's ideas on ethics, theology and aethetics. Source:

Resource summary

Language, Truth and Logic
1 Verification Principle
1.1 Can the knowlege be verified by empirical data?
1.1.1 Note that the question does not have to be verified, just able to be verified in principle
1.2 Is the knowlege a Tautology? (a Priori Analytic, true by definition)
1.3 If it is neither, it is not a genuine question
2 Ethics
2.1 Contains Metaphysics, but is not all metaphysics
2.2 Four classes of propositions about ethics
2.2.1 Definitions of ethical terms


  • Is the domain of ethical philosophy
2.2.2 Description of phenomena and their causes


  • Domain of Psychology or Sociology
2.2.3 Exhortations to moral value


  • Not propositions and so do not belong to either philosophy or science
2.2.4 Actual ethical judgements


  • Do not belong to Philosophy (but does not mean they are not useful)
3 Theology
3.1 God cannot be proven through a Priori means (the only things that can be linked to a priori reasoning are Tautologies)
3.2 God cannot be proven through empirical means
3.3 God cannot be said to exist, but he cannot be said not to exist either. The question is meaningless.
4 Aethetics
4.1 Shows emotion, not facts
5 Evaluation (AO3)
5.1 Does make a lot of sense
5.2 Does not say that the ideas do not have use or are false, but are just meaningless and so are not relevant to Philosophy
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