mahimeow80
Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

EME (ENERGY AND STEAM) Mind Map on ENERGY, created by mahimeow80 on 08/30/2013.

32
0
0
Tags
mahimeow80
Created by mahimeow80 about 6 years ago
Photosynthesis and Respiration
Jessica Phillips
P1 quiz
I M Wilson
Physics Review!
Nicholas Weiss
Mathematics Overview
PatrickNoonan
An Inspector Calls - Inspector Goole
Rattan Bhorjee
Physics: Energy resources and energy transfer
katgads
GCSE AQA Physics 1 Energy & Efficiency
Lilac Potato
GCSE Chemistry C2 topic notes
imogen.shiels
Physics - Energy, Power & Work
dominique22
Physics 1A - Energy
Zaki Rizvi
ENERGY
1 FORMS
1.1 KINETIC
1.1.1 Energy possesed by a body by the virtue of it's motion
1.2 POTENTIAL
1.2.1 Energy possesed by a body by the virtue of it's position
2 SOURCES
2.1 CAPITAL ENERGY SOURCES
2.1.1 Sources which exist ON EARTH
2.1.1.1 EG: fossil fuels, nuclear fuels, heat traps
2.2 CELESTIAL ENERGY SOURCES
2.2.1 Sources in which energy comes from OUTER SPACE(stars, planets, moon, etc)
2.2.1.1 EG: electromagnetic energy, gravitational, particle energy
3 CLASSIFICATION
3.1 Based on RENEWABILITY of energy sources
3.1.1 RENEWABLE
3.1.1.1 Energy sources that are produced continuously in nature and that WILL NOT GET EXHAUSTED eventually in future
3.1.1.1.1 EG: Solar, Hydel, Wind, Geothermal, Tidal, Ocean thermal, Biomass
3.1.2 NON RENEWABLE
3.1.2.1 Energy sources that WILL GET EXHAUSTED eventually in future
3.1.2.1.1 EG: Fossil fuels(coal, petroleum, coal gas, natural gas) , Nuclear fuels(Uranium)
3.1.3 COMPARISON BETWEEN RENWEABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE SOURCES
3.1.3.1 RENEWABLE
3.1.3.1.1 *inexhaustible
3.1.3.1.1.1 *freely available in nature, environment friendly
3.1.3.1.1.1.1 *continuously restored in nature after utilization
3.1.3.1.1.1.1.1 *Initial cost for utilization: HIGH Maintenance cost:LOW
3.1.3.2 NON-RENEWABLE
3.1.3.2.1 *exhaustible
3.1.3.2.1.1 not freely available in nature, not environment friendly
3.1.3.2.1.1.1 *once used cannot be recovered any more
3.1.3.2.1.1.1.1 Initial cost: HIGH Maintenance cost: HIGH
3.2 Based on USAGE of energy sources with respect to time
3.2.1 CONVENTIONAL
3.2.1.1 Being used from a VERY LONG TIME
3.2.1.1.1 EG: fossil fuels, nuclear fuels, hydel energy
3.2.2 NON-CONVENTIONAL
3.2.2.1 alternative energy source on which attention is focused from the recent past.
3.2.2.1.1 EG: solar, fuel cells, wind, tidal, geothermal, biomass, otec, etc
4 UTILIZATION
4.1 SOLAR
4.1.1 Utilization of solar energy requires COLLECTORS for initial collection of energy
4.1.1.1 FLAT PLATE COLLECTORS
4.1.1.1.1 Incident solar rays are absorbed by the FLAT PLATE of the collector. This energy is utilized for various applications
4.1.1.1.1.1 Widely used; preferred for LOW TEMP applications such as COOKING, WATER HEATING, DRYING OF FOODGRAINS AND VEGETABLES, HEATING AND COOLING OF BUILDINGS, etc
4.1.1.1.2 *absorber plate- metal; black coating to absorb rays
4.1.1.1.2.1 *transparent cover-glass; reflects incident solar energy back to the absorber plate
4.1.1.1.2.1.1 *water tubes-metallic; cold water circulates; attached to the absorber plate; cold water gets heated up- can be used
4.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 *Thermal insulation-below the absorber plate;to prevent heat loss by conduction
4.1.1.1.2.2 COMPONENTS
4.1.1.2 FOCUSING TYPE COLLECTORS
4.1.1.2.1 Solar rays fall on LARGE, CURVED , REFLECTING SURFACE which reflects all incident rays and focusses them to form a highly concentrated narrow beam which is absorbed later.
4.1.1.2.1.1 Used for HIGH TEMP heating applications for INDUSTRIAL PURPOSES
4.1.2 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
4.1.2.1 ADVANTAGES
4.1.2.1.1 Inexhaustible; Most abundant
4.1.2.1.1.1 Environmentally clean source
4.1.2.1.1.1.1 freely available-hence can be used as alternative to high cost energy sources
4.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 can be converted to other forms-wide range of applications
4.1.2.2 DISADVANTAGES
4.1.2.2.1 dilute source of energy
4.1.2.2.1.1 availibility varies with time and weather
4.1.2.2.1.1.1 day energy has to be STORED for the night- need for storage increases the cost
4.1.2.2.1.1.1.1 collection of solar energy and it's concentration requires special components
4.2 HYDEL
4.2.1 DAM is built to collect (rain) water in a reservoir; GRAVITATIONAL POT'L ENERGY is stored in water above the dam; water from dam flows through PENSTOCK and enters NOZZLE where POTENTIAL energy is converted to KINETIC energy. Kinetic energy is used to run the TURBINE which drives the GENERATOR to produce ELECTRICITY
4.2.1.1 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
4.2.1.1.1 ADVANTAGES
4.2.1.1.1.1 After building of dam, energy is virtually FREE
4.2.1.1.1.1.1 working COST of system is LESS
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 electricity can be generated CONSTANTLY
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 NO WASTE or POLLUTION
4.2.1.1.2 DISADVANTAGES
4.2.1.1.2.1 Dependent on QUANTITY of water available
4.2.1.1.2.1.1 construction of DAM is EXPENSIVE
4.2.1.1.2.1.1.1 finding a suitable SITE for power plant is difficult
4.3 WIND
4.3.1 It is the KINETIC energy of large masses of AIR moving over the earth's surface. Can be harnessed using WIND MILLS or WIND TURBINES
4.3.2 WIND MILL:
4.3.2.1 *blades: specially designed; connected to shaft; designed large- to extract largest possible volume of air.BLADES rotate due to kinetic energy of flow of wind(which in turn make the shaft rotate; drives generator to produce electricity)
4.3.2.1.1 *shaft- connected to small generator fixed in axis of wind mill
4.3.2.2 also used to PUMP UNDERGROUND WATER for drinking and irrigation
4.3.3 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
4.3.3.1 ADVANTAGES
4.3.3.1.1 inexhaustible
4.3.3.1.1.1 freely available; environment friendly
4.3.3.1.1.1.1 cheap source for power generation
4.3.3.1.1.1.1.1 freely available- hence can be used as alternate power source
4.3.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 good method for supplying energy to REMOTE areas
4.3.3.2 DISADVANTAGES
4.3.3.2.1 wind is NOT always PREDICTABLE
4.3.3.2.1.1 wind mills cannot be located at ALL places
4.4 GEOTHERMAL
4.4.1 It is the HEAT energy stored deep inside the earth.
4.4.2 HARNESSING geothermal energy
4.4.2.1 GT energy-found in form of heat content of DRY ROCKS. HOT ZONES deep inside the earth are identified and this heat energy is TAPPED by DRILLING DEEP HOLES inside the earth
4.4.2.1.1 COLD water is FORCED THROUGH in one of the BORE HOLES; due to heat of the rocks, water converts to STEAM; This HIGH PRESSURE-HIGH TEMP steam is drawn using another BORE HOLE. Steam is passed through SEPARARATOR to remove sediments/impurities collected.
4.4.2.1.1.1 PURIFIED STEAM-passed through SUPERHEATOR or directly to TURBINE-electricity is generated
4.4.2.1.1.1.1 After doing WORK, steam is passed to CONDENSER and the cycle repeats.
4.4.3 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
4.4.3.1 ADVANTAGES
4.4.3.1.1 free from POLLUTION
4.4.3.1.1.1 AFTER building GT station, power is free
4.4.3.1.1.1.1 can also be used to WARM HOUSES apart from power generation
4.4.3.2 DISADVANTAGES
4.4.3.2.1 SITE LOCATION for GT plant is difficult
4.4.3.2.1.1 Difficult to DRILL DEEP BORE HOLES
4.4.3.2.1.1.1 Hazardous GASES and MINERALS may come up from underground; difficult to safely dispose off.
4.5 TIDAL
4.5.1 During HIGH TIDE period, water flows from sea to tidal basin through WATER TURBINES since water level in sea is more). This operates the turbine and ultimately the GENERATOR. During LOW TIDE period, water flows from TIDAL BASIN to sea. Here, FLOWING WATER drives the turbine to generate power.
4.5.2 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
4.5.2.1 ADVANTAGES
4.5.2.1.1 pollution free
4.5.2.1.1.1 after DAM building, power is FREE
4.5.2.1.1.1.1 Tides are PREDICTABLE.
4.5.2.2 DISADVANTAGES
4.5.2.2.1 HIGH capital investment
4.5.2.2.1.1 provides power for only about 10 HOURS/DAY when tide is actually moving
4.5.2.2.1.1.1 very few SUITABLE SITES
4.6 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION
4.6.1 Oceans absorb most of the solar radiation incident and thus it's surface has thermal energy
4.6.1.1 As long as the temp differs by about 20C(36F), OTEC can produce significant amount of power
4.6.2 HARNESSING:
4.6.2.1 EQUIPMENT: Turbine-generator mounted on a floating platform, evaporator, condenser, pump
4.6.2.2 Warm water from Ocean surface is drawn into EVAPORATOR in which LIQUID AMMONIA absorbs heat from the water. NH3 vapourizes and this HIGH PRESSURE AMMONIA flows from evaporator through turbine where it EXPANDS and runs the turbine. By coupling the turbine to the GENERATOR, power can be generated.
4.6.2.2.1 After doing work, LOW PRESSURE AMMONIA passes through CONDENSER where it is condensed to liq. NH3 by giving away the heat to the cold water drawn from the deep of the ocean. Liq. NH3 is pumped back to the evaporator and the cycle repeats
4.6.3 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
4.6.3.1 ADVANTAGES
4.6.3.1.1 renewable
4.6.3.1.1.1 can be used on LARGE SCALE
4.6.3.1.1.1.1 pollution free
4.6.3.1.1.1.1.1 exploits NATURAL TEMP GRADIENT in ocean.
4.6.3.2 DISADVANTAGES
4.6.3.2.1 High CAPITAL cost
4.6.3.2.1.1 Enormous ENGG EFFORTS
4.7 BIOMASS
4.7.1 The waste wood, tree branches,cow dung and other materials are fed into a furnace where it is burnt. The heat is transferred to water from which steam is generated
4.8 FOSSIL FUELS
4.9 NUCLEAR ENERGY

Media attachments