1 Anatomical features and the physiological significance
1.1 Zone of Gaseous Exchange
Alveoli does this.
Human have more than 300 million alveoli and have a diameter of 300 micrometer
Surfactant lowers the surface tension, made by Type II Pneumocyte.
1.2 Conducting Zone
Respiratory, anatomical dead space, around 150 ml, consist of the throat etc etc, all the way down before alveoli.
1.3 Respiratory Zone
Bulk of the lung
It is also where the cross sectional area increases rapidly.
Respiratory cycle consists of inspiration and expiration.
Airflow- (Patm-Palve)/Resistance of airway.
1.5 Pulmonary Blood Flow
Cardiac output passes thru the pulmonary cirtuit at 6 litres per min.
Mean pulmonary artery pressure is 15mmhg compared to Mean blood pressure.
Bronchial arteries consists of oxygenated blood.
1.6 Particle Removal
1st Stage: Nose hairs
2nd Stage: Ciliated airway with goblet cells, mucus
1. Inspiration (around 2.5 l of air)
2. Epiglottis closes and vocal cords closes
3. Increase of pressure by forceful contraction of abdominal muscles
4. Sudden opening of vocal cords and epiglottis
5. Air expel.
Sneeze is similar.
1.7 Gas Laws
PV=PV Boyle's Law
V/T=V/T Charles Law
Avogardo's Law: ! mol of gas occupies the same amount of pressure and molecules.
at Odeg, 1 mol = 22.4L
Dalton's Law of partial pressure: P total is equal to the sum of all parts.
Henry's Law, the conc of the given gas will dissolve in equilibrium in direct proportion to the partial pressure
1.7.1 Gas Tension
Gas diffuse down the tension gradient
1.8 Air Composition
79.04% nitrogen and others.