Epic Geog wooo wooo


Mind Map on Epic Geog wooo wooo, created by ML1032019 TAY ZHI SHENG JAPHETH JOHN on 09/18/2019.
Mind Map by ML1032019 TAY ZHI SHENG JAPHETH JOHN, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by ML1032019 TAY ZHI SHENG JAPHETH JOHN about 4 years ago

Resource summary

Epic Geog wooo wooo
  1. Arid Tropics
    1. Desert Vegetation
      1. Types
        1. Cactus
          1. Bushes
            1. Weeds
              1. Grasses
                1. Stunted Trees
                2. Adaptations
                  1. Structural
                    1. Leaves
                      1. Reduced in size to become thorns
                        1. Leathery
                          1. Waxy
                            1. Has White powder
                              1. Reduce rate of transpiration to retain more water in response to the lack of rainfall
                              2. Stems
                                1. Increased in girth
                                  1. To become swollen and succulent to store water
                                  2. Thick Skin
                                    1. Lock water within
                                    2. Tightly closed stomata
                                      1. Lock water within
                                    3. Roots
                                      1. Grows 15m deep into the ground
                                        1. To tap ground water
                                    4. Behavioural
                                      1. Desert Ephemeral plant
                                        1. Plants with short life cycles
                                          1. Adapted to take advantage of short wet periods in arid tropics environment
                                          2. Resurection Plant
                                            1. Absorbs water and grows rapidly when the soil is moist (hardly)
                                              1. When there is no water, it folds up into a tight ball as it becomes dry to retain whatever water is left and all metabolic functions are minimised to the minimum until the soil becomes wet
                                      2. Rocks
                                        1. Weathering and Erosion
                                          1. Weathering
                                            1. Breaking down or disintegrating of rocks and minerals on Earth's surface
                                              1. Agents
                                                1. Water
                                                  1. Ice
                                                    1. Acids
                                                      1. Salts
                                                        1. Plants
                                                          1. Animals
                                                            1. Winds
                                                              1. Changes in temperature
                                                              2. Types
                                                                1. Physical
                                                                  1. Freeze Thaw
                                                                    1. Water enters rock through hole. when water freezes in cold temperature, it expands by 9 percent before being melted back to water Repeating this cycle, it will eventually break the rock into 2
                                                                      1. Cold area like mountains
                                                                      2. Exfoliotian
                                                                        1. When the rock is heated, it expands, and when it is cooled, it contracts. After repeating this cycle multiple times, the surface layer eventually breaks off and parts get peeled off
                                                                          1. Occurs in places with high temp like desert
                                                                          2. Pressure release
                                                                            1. A big rock underground experiences pressure from all sides, so it escapes to the side which has the least pressure towards the surface breaking the surface and weathering it
                                                                              1. Occurs in desert and mountains
                                                                              2. Growth the salt crystals in rock
                                                                                1. Crystal grows in rock and expands, weathering it
                                                                                  1. Occurs in hot deserts
                                                                                2. Biological
                                                                                  1. Sprouting of tree seed in rock
                                                                                    1. Growing of tree roots in rock
                                                                                      1. Lichens growing on rocks
                                                                                        1. Tunneling action of animals
                                                                                          1. Hot and humid climates like forest
                                                                                          2. Chemical
                                                                                            1. Hydrolosis
                                                                                              1. Break down of rocks by acidic water to produce clay and soluble salt
                                                                                                1. Example: Feldspar + acidic water= clay
                                                                                              2. Oxidation
                                                                                                1. Breakdown of rock by oxygen and water, giving iron- rich rocks a rusty coloured surface
                                                                                                  1. Occurs in rocks with iron
                                                                                                2. Solution
                                                                                                  1. Removal of rock in solution by acidic rainwater
                                                                                            2. Erosion
                                                                                              1. Broken down and disintegrated Soil and Rock particles are moved elsewhere
                                                                                                1. Agents: Moving water, winds
                                                                                          3. Humid Tropic
                                                                                            1. Spatial distribution
                                                                                              1. Generally between The Tropic of Cancer(23.5 degrees N) and Tropic of Capricon(23.5 degrees S)
                                                                                                1. Where?
                                                                                                  1. Brazil, Amazon rainforest
                                                                                                    1. Congo
                                                                                                      1. Southeast asia
                                                                                                  2. Characteristic
                                                                                                    1. Hot, average temperature of over 27 degrees celsius, min 25, max 33
                                                                                                      1. Wet, Total annual rainfall of over 1000 mm of rain, up to 2400 mm of rain
                                                                                                        1. Hot and Wet climate makes it favourable for plants growth
                                                                                                          1. Causing a wide variety of plants to thrive here
                                                                                                        2. Must take note of when see temperature on climatograph
                                                                                                          1. Mean annual temperature (high/low)
                                                                                                            1. Annual temp range (Max temp minus Min temp)
                                                                                                              1. Fluctuation
                                                                                                                1. If every month has constant high temperatures: high uniform temperature
                                                                                                                  1. If every month has constant low temperatures: Low uniform temperature
                                                                                                                    1. High on some months, low on others: fluctuating
                                                                                                                    2. What is considered high, moderate, low
                                                                                                                      1. High: over 20 degrees
                                                                                                                        1. Moderate: 10-20 degrees
                                                                                                                          1. Low: below 10 degrees
                                                                                                                        2. When see precipitation on climatograph
                                                                                                                          1. Total annual precipitation
                                                                                                                            1. Distribution of precipitation
                                                                                                                              1. Rain is evenly destributed
                                                                                                                                1. Rain is seasonal
                                                                                                                                  1. Any distinct wet/dry months
                                                                                                                                  2. What is High, moderate, low
                                                                                                                                    1. High: Over 1000mm
                                                                                                                                      1. Moderate: 250-1000 mm
                                                                                                                                        1. Low: Under 250 mm
                                                                                                                                      2. Wind and precipitation
                                                                                                                                        1. Precipitation
                                                                                                                                          1. forms
                                                                                                                                            1. Rain
                                                                                                                                              1. Sleet
                                                                                                                                                1. Snow
                                                                                                                                                  1. Hail
                                                                                                                                                  2. Conditions to form
                                                                                                                                                    1. Presence of vapour
                                                                                                                                                      1. Heat for evaporation
                                                                                                                                                        1. Cooling for condensation
                                                                                                                                                          1. Cloud formation
                                                                                                                                                          2. Water cycle
                                                                                                                                                            1. Evaporation+Transpiration, Condensation (clouds), Precipitation
                                                                                                                                                            2. Types
                                                                                                                                                              1. Convectional rain
                                                                                                                                                                1. Sun rays heat up the ground, which in turn heats the air. The hot air containing water vapour will rise. Water vapour will then cool down and condense into water droplets to form clouds. Rainfall will then take place when the cloud is too heavy to hold itself
                                                                                                                                                                2. Relief Rain
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Requires a high mountain to work
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Hot Wind from the ocean will flow towards the mountain and move up the slope. It will increase in height and will soon cool down and condense. The rain will fall onto the windward side of the mountain, which is where the air flowed up, and the dry cold air will go down the leeward side
                                                                                                                                                              2. Wind
                                                                                                                                                                1. Simple flow of huge amount of air, from high pressure to low pressure
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Warm air rises, cold air sinks
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Local winds
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Sea Breeze
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Formation
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Land gets heated faster than sun
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Air gains heat and rises
                                                                                                                                                                              1. As air moves from a high pressure to a low pressure, the air from the sea will go towards the land
                                                                                                                                                                                1. The air will then heat up and rise, creating a cycle
                                                                                                                                                                  2. Structure
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Emergant Layer
                                                                                                                                                                      1. 40-50m high
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Receives highest sunlight, hottest temperatures, wind and rain
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Eg: Seraya tree
                                                                                                                                                                          2. Canopy layer
                                                                                                                                                                            1. 25-30 m high
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Shelters the fauna and flora below from extreme heats, wind and rain
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Little wind below canopy
                                                                                                                                                                                2. Home to thousands of animal species
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Eg Kapur
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Climbing plants like liana
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Creeping plants like bird nest fern
                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Understorey
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Between canopy and forest floor
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. 15m in height
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Little sunlight little rainfall
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. leaf litter
                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Forest floor
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. High humidity of 95 percent
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. less than 10 percent of light reaches the ground
                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Adaptation
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Crown of tree
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Emergent, small crown with small leaves to reduce water loss to combat high sunlight received
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Canopy, large crown with bigger leaves
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Plenty of sunlight but many trees competing for it
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Leaves
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Emergent, small leaves
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Exposed to sunlight which causes leaf to gain heat and lose water. no need for competition
                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Undergrowth, Big leaves
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. reach out and Absorb maximum sunlight to combat low sunlight levels for photosynthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. Arid tropics
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Location
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Between 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south
                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Characteristics
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Hot dry climate
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Temperature
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Mean annual temperature range
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. 20-25 degrees celsius
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Extreme maximum ranges=43.5-49
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. min temp drop to -18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Rainfall
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. total annual rainfall= 30 mm ( below 100 mm)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Sun earth relationship
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. earth n sun
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Sun strikes near the poles at an angle, spreading the heat over an area and not concentrated at an area like the equator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. tilted at its axis(23.5)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Summer solstice
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. northern hemisphere= longer day
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Northpole= 24 hours day
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Equator= equal day equal night
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. southern hemisphere= shorter day
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. southpole= 24 hours night
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Winter solstice
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. North pole=24hours night
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Northern hemisphere = longer night
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Equator= equal day equal night
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. southern hemisphere= longer day
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