India

holly_brownsill
Mind Map by holly_brownsill, updated more than 1 year ago
holly_brownsill
Created by holly_brownsill about 5 years ago
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Description

An overview so far of the G3 theme of India

Resource summary

India
1 overveiw
1.1 population 1.25 billion
1.2 life expectancy 66 years
1.3 economy $4000 GDP per capita
1.3.1 1.2% growth rate
1.3.2 poverty level 38% mostly in rural areas
1.3.3 growing middle class
1.3.4 agriculture is their main industry
1.4 became independent in 1947, was a command economy
1.4.1 economic growth limited to 1.8% a year
2 changing economy
2.1 agriculture
2.1.1 green revolution, 1960's
2.1.1.1 "miracle rice" could increase rice yields 5 fold
2.1.1.1.1 India had a major food shortage and this provided more food and cash crops
2.1.1.1.1.1 food imports have risen from $1,300 in 2004 to $1.7 billion in 2013 due to soil degrading fertilizers
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 fertilizers break down soil causing it to break up and fall into rivers (Ganges action plan) it also makes it unsuitable for growing crops and more susceptible to flooding
2.1.1.2 not everyone can afford these new machines and fertilizers
2.1.2 2/3rds of the population work in agriculture
2.1.3 cash crops
2.1.3.1 McCaine and McDonalds
2.1.3.1.1 2,000 acres of potato fields in Gujarat
2.1.3.1.1.1 400 farmers under contract with McCaine
2.1.3.1.1.1.1 average holding is 1.3 hectares
2.1.3.1.1.1.1.1 drip irrigation saves water
2.1.3.2 tomatoes for pepsi
2.1.3.2.1 sent work to Punjab
2.1.3.3 hampered with tight regulations
2.1.3.3.1 most states have now eased the restrictions to increase business
2.1.3.3.2 agribusiness accounts for $220 billion, small fraction of agricultural output
2.2 cities and services
2.2.1 services sector contributes to 41% GDP
2.2.2 Bangalore is a major IT centre
2.2.2.1 annual software industry growth exceeded 50%
2.2.2.1.1 growth from $4 billion 1999-2000 to $6.3 billion 2000-01
2.2.3 Mumbai big financial hub
2.2.3.1 23 stock exchanges
2.2.3.1.1 9,000 listed companies
2.2.3.2 BT call centres and billing service
2.2.4 IT sector
2.2.4.1 50% annual growth since 1991
2.2.4.2 2.2 million jobs by 2008
2.2.5 SEZ
2.2.5.1 Maharastra had the greatest number of SEZ's approved (88% of 24)
2.2.5.2 low tax rates and free trade
2.2.5.3 India could be loosing out on money
3 sustainability
3.1 Bhopal
3.1.1 gas in form of cyanide leaked into shanty town
3.1.1.1 American owned union carbide pesticide plant 3 miles from capital of Bhopal in Madhga Pradesh
3.1.1.2 20,000 died
3.1.1.2.1 800,000 affected
3.1.1.2.1.1 children of Bhopal 10 times more likely to suffer birth defects than anywhere else in India
3.1.1.2.1.2 not enough being done to help victims
3.1.1.3 left the area toxic and barrn, unsafe drinking water
3.1.1.3.1 120,000 still suffer chronic illness such as emphysema and cancer
3.1.1.3.1.1 October 2004, India supreme court approve $350 million compensation plan to over 570,000 victims
3.1.2 1989 Union Carbide paid India £470 million but this was deemed woefully inadequet
3.2 soil erosion from chemical fertilizers
3.3 Ganges water pollution
3.3.1 10% of worlds population live on the Ganges
3.3.2 uses
3.3.2.1 naviagton
3.3.2.2 religious practices
3.3.2.3 irrigation
3.3.2.4 industrial and domestic use
3.3.2.4.1 industry extract water then put it back into the river
3.3.2.4.1.1 irrigations artificial fertilizers run into the river
3.3.2.4.1.1.1 bathing and body burning for religious practices
3.3.3 frakah dam 1975
3.3.3.1 cuts off Bangladesh's water supply
3.3.3.1.1 chemical contamination affects 195,000 habitations in the country
3.3.3.1.1.1 excess iron in water samples
3.3.3.1.1.2 only 1/3rd of the waste that goes into the Ganges is treated
3.4 Rural areas
3.4.1 deforestation to provide fuel for cooking food
3.4.1.1 deforestation means more soil erosion
3.4.1.1.1 ddy ad contaminated water for irrigation
3.4.1.1.1.1 biogas generators
3.4.1.1.1.1.1 expensive only wealthy rural farmers may buy them and the poor will spend more time gathering cow dung to sell to the wealthy
3.4.1.1.1.1.1.1 rural area issues
3.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 more than 70% of people live in villages
3.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 80% of poor people live in rural areas
3.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 caste system
3.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 debt if they can't afford new farming devices
3.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3 work is in the cities
4 mumbai
4.1 inequality
4.1.1 Dharavi
4.1.1.1 immense poverty, illegal settlement
4.1.1.1.1 unsanitary, 1 toilet between 10,000 in some places
4.1.1.1.1.1 costs Indian Government $50 billion a year in premature deaths and hygiene related disease
4.1.1.1.1.2 low paid service jobs
4.1.1.1.1.2.1 informal sector
4.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 decline in manufacturing
4.1.1.1.1.2.2 Dharavi recycling plant
4.1.1.1.1.2.2.1 pot making
4.1.1.1.1.2.2.1.1 little education access
4.1.1.1.1.2.2.1.1.1 recycling units burn illegal material like copper wire, electronic waste and chemical dyes
4.1.1.1.1.2.2.1.1.1.1 from just 2013 the average suspended respiratory particle measurement doubled from 102 ug/m3 to 207 ug/m3 in 2014
4.1.1.1.1.3 $40 billion world bank loan
4.1.1.1.1.3.1 9000 new toilets in 400 locations
4.1.1.2 bottom up development
4.1.1.2.1 family and community live together
4.1.1.2.1.1 don't want to leave for tower blocks
4.1.1.2.1.1.1 many couldn't afford!
4.1.1.3 land worth $10 billion
4.1.2 growing middle class
4.1.2.1 gated private propeties
4.1.2.1.1 worlds most expensive house
4.1.2.2 more malls
4.1.2.2.1 English speaking graduates
4.1.2.2.1.1 graduate level jobs
4.1.2.2.1.1.1 more disposable income
4.1.2.3 rely on cars
4.1.2.3.1 10 Km journey takes 30 minuets
4.1.2.3.1.1 2013 nitrogen dioxide levels 2x the safe level for human health
4.1.3 for every square foot of housing built for the poor, 30% more is allowed for commercial development
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