Ecology

Ethan Ham
Mind Map by Ethan Ham, updated more than 1 year ago
Ethan Ham
Created by Ethan Ham over 1 year ago
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ECOLOGY conceptual map

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Ecology
  1. The Hydrosphere
    1. The hydrosphere is considered also a layer of Earth's structure, which covers 70% of the entire planet surface. The remaining 30% is land.
      1. The Water Cycle
        1. The urban Water Cycle
          1. Seawater
            1. Nearly 97% of the water on our planet is in the oceans, which are large bodies of water stored in depressions of the Earth’s crust. We distinguish three major oceans: Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian.
              1. Dynamics of seawater
                1. The oceanic waters are never still, they are entities in continuous motion. The most important movements are the waves, well known as the ripples on the sea surface caused by wind action
              2. Continental Water
                1. Lentic environments, which are those with still water such as in swamps and aquifers. Lotic environments where water is flowing such as in groundwater streams, rivers, streams, lakes and ponds.
              3. Physical, Political and Economic Geography
                1. Economic geography helps to identify the type of markets and consumers, as to calculate the production required to satisfy the goods needed to satisfy them.
                  1. Human and Physical Geography
                    1. Anthropology helps us to see the evolution of the human being both biologically and culturally, its religion, language or traditions.
                      1. Political science analyzes the power of certain social groups for making decisions and achieving their goals.
                        1. Economy studies the products and services that meet our needs, such as the technology consumption.
                          1. History helps us to know which events occurred to our ancestors, for example, the wars that happened in a certain region
                            1. Demography helps us understand the characteristics of society, i.e., geographical distribution, immigration, emigration, and birth or death rates.
                            2. Colonial geography
                              1. Since ancient times several empires have emerged, the Roman Empire was one of them, which was the most extensive, populated, powerful and best organized of the Antiquity.
                                1. Birth rate: indicates the number of births recorded in a group for every 1,000 people in a given year.
                                  1. Mortality rate: indicates the number recorded of deaths recorded in a group for every 1,000 people in a given year.
                                    1. Infant mortality rate: number of children dying before their first year of life per 1,000 live births.
                                      1. Population growth rate: is the rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases in a given time period as a fraction of the initial population, often expressed as a percentage.
                                        1. Life expectancy: probable duration of the life of a person according to the conditions under which he/she was born and live.
                                          1. Literacy - illiteracy: number of individuals aged 15 or over can (not) read in a population, often expressed as a percentage.
                                            1. Human sex ratio: is the ratio of males to females in a population.
                                              1. Fertility rate: average number of offspring born per woman.
                                            2. Political Geography
                                              1. Political geography is a subdivision of human geography, which was first addressed in 1897, in a work of the German Geographer Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904).
                                              2. Economical Geography
                                                1. Just as political, economic geography have a great presence and power of influence in the world. This science is responsible for studying everything related to goods’ needs, production, and satisfaction.
                                                  1. "the nagging feeling that something is missing, that moves us to act as to make it disappear or at least diminish"
                                                    1. "obtaining satisfiers capable of making human needs disappear."
                                                      1. "goods and services that make go away or lessen a human need are called satisfaction.
                                                      2. Primary sector covers activities directly related to natural resources such as mining, oil and gas extraction, agriculture, forestry and fisheries.
                                                        1. Secondary sector: In this sector raw materials are transformed into goods. It comprises manufacturing, metal-mechanic, electronic, petrochemical, power, water and other industries.
                                                          1. Tertiary sector emerges from the above sectors and covers activities that do not produce tangible goods, but services such as trading, transport and communications.
                                                          2. Human Landscape
                                                            1. Economics: The banning for consuming certain foods in some religions prevents the development of related activities.
                                                              1. Politics: some of the separatist movements were motivated by religion, such as conflicts in India, Yugoslavia or Northern Ireland
                                                                1. Social. Religion is also a bond between nations, for example, it has allowed the unity of the Jewish people until today.
                                                                  1. Cultural: religion has inspired works of art in every way.
                                                                2. Ecology, a Multidisciplinary Science
                                                                  1. Throughout history there have been many who have given something to the ecology as a science, as in the case of Aristotle, who was one of the first to conclude that the Earth was round, based on the observation of the stars, eclipses and tides.
                                                                    1. The Branches of Ecology
                                                                      1. This branch analyses the mutual interactions between the environment and the organisms that dwell in it; that is, the way the individual (a complete organism, either a human, an insect, a bacteria) changes its environment and in turn is affected by it.
                                                                        1. Its field of study is the community (set of populations) and the environment that surrounds it within a geographical area.
                                                                          1. It deals with mass and energy flows between organisms and the abiotic components in their environment, i.e. ecosystem
                                                                            1. It studies a population in terms of its environment and relationships with other populations.
                                                                              1. Method of study
                                                                                1. Observe and measure phenomena or characterization: perform observations using the senses, define and measure the phenomena being studied.
                                                                                  1. Form Hypothesis: theoretical, hypothetical explanations of observations and measurements of the subject of study or phenomenon.
                                                                                    1. Experiment: tests the predictions done by the hypothesis in order to prove it right or wrong.
                                                                                      1. Make Conclusions: if the hypothesis was proved correct, then it turns into a theory or scientific knowledge. If wrong a new hypothesis needs to be formed or more observations, measurements and experiments need to be performed.
                                                                                    2. Environment
                                                                                      1. Biotic and abiotic factors Ecology is a discipline within Biology that tries to understand the effect of environmental conditions in which organisms such as flora or fauna live.
                                                                                        1. Biotic factors are any living components in an ecosystem that affect organisms in relationships like competition, commensalism, parasitism predation, and mutualism.
                                                                                          1. Autotrophs: those that produce their own food (plants, algae), also called producers.
                                                                                            1. Heterotrophs: they are also called "consumers", as they do not have the ability to produce their own food and therefore "consume" those who do or “producers”. This group includes animals and fungi.
                                                                                              1. Decomposers: are those that destroy other organisms that were once alive and return chemical elements to the soil (fungi and bacteria). This is a special kind of heterotrophs.
                                                                                                1. Abiotic factors refer to the physical and chemical conditions in the environment, such as climate, temperature, salinity of water, minerals in the soil.
                                                                                                  1. Carbon dioxide: This chemical substance is the basis of photosynthesis, and, therefore, the primary food source for photosynthetic organisms.
                                                                                                    1. Soil: This is the main source of raw materials that provide for the photosynthetic process and the basis of food production for the rest of the environment.
                                                                                                      1. Water: It is necessary for all chemical elements to move across the ecosystem in a perennial cycle of nutrition and decomposition.
                                                                                                        1. Atmosphere: This is the gaseous layer (nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and other gases) surrounding the Earth’s crust.
                                                                                                          1. Solar Energy: The energy that Earth receives from the Sun, in the form of ultraviolet light, heat and visible light. It is the main source of energy on Earth and precursor of the photosynthetic process.
                                                                                                      2. Population
                                                                                                        1. refers to "a group of organisms of the same species occupying a given area and performing genes exchange"
                                                                                                          1. Emergent Properties
                                                                                                            1. Size: The number of organisms that make up a population.
                                                                                                              1. Density: Describes how close individuals are with each other, i.e. the number of organisms per unit of area or volume. It is a measure of the strength of competition for resources between organisms.
                                                                                                                1. Distribution pattern: Refers to the order of organisms in a population
                                                                                                                  1. Aggregated: when populations form groups
                                                                                                                    1. Random: randomly distributed on a territory. They are common in low-density populations or endangered species
                                                                                                                      1. Uniform: the pattern is regular, occurs in areas of crops.
                                                                                                                        1. Demographic Parameters:
                                                                                                                          1. Birth rate: indicates how many individuals are born as a consequence of reproduction and how often.
                                                                                                                            1. Mortality rate is the number of individuals who die in a given time.
                                                                                                                              1. Immigration rate: measurement of the movement of individuals between populations, specifically the number of individuals entering the population.
                                                                                                                                1. Emigration rate: measurement of the movement of individuals between populations, specifically the number of individuals leaving the population.
                                                                                                                                  1. The population growth rate:it measures the result of births, deaths, immigration and emigration that affect the size of the population changing over time.
                                                                                                                                    1. Population structure: This property indicates the configuration of the population
                                                                                                                        2. Factors that regulate population growth
                                                                                                                          1. Abiotic: prevent populations from overgrowing, either reducing their reproductive capacity or dying. These abiotic conditions can be very intense, and are considered natural disasters because they can have drastic effects on populations.
                                                                                                                            1. Biotic: there are factors that regulate the size of populations
                                                                                                                              1. Competition: occurs between organisms that require the same resources, which are limited.
                                                                                                                                1. Predation: is an organism that feeds on another. This benefits one species (the predator) and affects the other (the prey).
                                                                                                                                  1. Mutuality: organisms of different species benefit mutually when interacting
                                                                                                                                    1. Commensalism: one species is benefited in some way
                                                                                                                                    2. ntrinsic factor: when the population is high, individuals develop high mortality rates for existing resources or competition
                                                                                                                                      1. Extrinsic Factor: External biotic and abiotic elements or populations that cause mortality or inhibit reproduction
                                                                                                                                    3. Community Ecology
                                                                                                                                      1. Communities are a set of populations of different species that interact and share a common point in space that is called habitat
                                                                                                                                        1. re classified into biomes
                                                                                                                                          1. vEmergent Properties
                                                                                                                                            1. Species richness: the amount or the number of species forming a community.
                                                                                                                                              1. Composition: the set of species that make up the community
                                                                                                                                                1. Structure: refers to the way a community is organized
                                                                                                                                                  1. Horizontal stratification: indicates the distribution of organisms on Earth's surface
                                                                                                                                                    1. Vertical stratification: Differential distribution of organisms
                                                                                                                                                      1. Physiognomy: the visual aspect of the species
                                                                                                                                                        1. Diversity: As the name implies, is the variety of individuals that make up the community.
                                                                                                                                                          1. Successional status: is the development characteristics and recovery process after a community disturbance.
                                                                                                                                            2. Succession Dynamics
                                                                                                                                              1. This sequence starts with a disturbance
                                                                                                                                                1. These disturbances can be caused by natural phenomena such as earthquakes, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, forest fires, etc., or they can be associated with human activities such as pollution, urbanization, logging, etc...
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