Hard Engineering

jessica.simms
Mind Map by jessica.simms, updated more than 1 year ago
jessica.simms
Created by jessica.simms over 5 years ago
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Description

a level Geography Mind Map on Hard Engineering, created by jessica.simms on 02/22/2015.

Resource summary

Hard Engineering
1 Dams
1.1 A barrier to obstruct the flow of water
1.1.1 +Highly effective
1.1.2 + Supply HEP
1.1.3 -Silt collects behind dams
1.1.4 +Create jobs
1.1.5 - Could force people out of homes
1.1.6 - Unnatural
1.1.7 -Expensive
1.1.8 -Flood areas upstream
1.2 CASE STUDY Three gorges dam
2 Removal of settlements
2.1 -Expensive/Complicated
2.2 + 100% flood risk reduction
3 Flood interception Schemes
3.1 building a bypass channel,using a new channel to store excess water, using embanments
3.1.1 -Expensive
3.1.2 +reduces flood risk in towns/cities
4 Flood storage resevoirs
4.1 store excess water in upper reaches of catchment
4.1.1 +Natural looking
4.1.2 + Can provide water elsewhere
4.1.3 -Requires a lot of land
4.1.4 -Expensive due to buying land
4.1.4.1 Unless built on cheap high land (little of this in the U.k)
5 Relief channels
5.1 redirect water around a settlement to re-enter the main channel later
5.1.1 +can be used to supply water as well
5.1.2 +Natural looking
5.1.3 -Expensive so can only be used where it is impossible to alter existing channel
6 Channel improvements
6.1 Smoother(with concrete), dredging, channel straightening
6.1.1 +Move water out of area quicker
6.1.2 +Increases channel capacity
6.1.3 +Accomodates larger discharge
6.1.4 -can increase risk of flooding downstream
6.1.5 -requires maintenence
6.1.6 -Short term benefits
6.1.7 -More erosion downstream
6.1.8 -Enlarged channels often arent used and fill with weeds
7 Flood walls, levees and embankments
7.1 Walls and levees add height to channel
7.1.1 +Embankments(if set back from channel) can provide storage for excess flood waters while inhabited areas remain unaffected
7.1.2 -Expensive
7.1.3 - Eye sore
7.1.4 -Could speed up water downstream and flood somewhere else
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