Art Movements

Julia Lee
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

SOVA, Art History

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Julia Lee
Created by Julia Lee over 5 years ago
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Art Movements
1 Renaissance 13th - 14th C AD

Annotations:

  • - Early Renaissance - High Renaissance
1.1 Baroque 1600s - 1700s

Annotations:

  • - Theatrical emotion - Concept of time - Dynamic/diagonal composition - Ornamentation - Rich primary colors - Painterly - Dramatic lighting - Landscapes - Still life - Portraits
1.1.1 Rococo 17th C

Annotations:

  • - Gentle gradations, mingling of colors - Light, delicate, feminine tastes - Frivolous, excessive - Shell motifs - The rich and their leisure - Courting couples - Pastorals - Painting/decorative arts/interior design
1.1.1.1 Neoclassicism 17th - 19 C

Annotations:

  • -Reaction against Baroque's excessive movement and life - Reaction against Rococo's Ornamentation and asymmetry - Emphasis on lines, order, symmetry, solemnity, rationality -Line drawing as purest classical medum
1.1.1.1.1 Romanticism 1800 - 1850

Annotations:

  • - "Freedom in art, freedom in society; this is the double aim" -Victor Hugo - "Artist's feeling is his law" - "A painter should paint not only what he sees before him but what he sees in him" -Friedrich
1.1.1.1.1.1 Realism 1850 - 1870
1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Gustave Courbet
1.1.1.1.1.1.2 LJM Daguerrre
1.1.1.1.1.1.3 Context

Annotations:

  • - Failure of Industrial Revolution - Invention of photography
1.1.1.1.1.2 Eugene Delacroix
1.1.1.1.1.2.1 Liberty Leading the People (1830)

Annotations:

  • - Commemorating the July Revolution of 1880 that toppled Charles X -Woman personifies Liberty
1.1.1.1.1.3 Francisco Goya

Annotations:

  • - Spanish mainter - 1792/3 onwards he was deaf. Withdrawn, intropective
1.1.1.1.1.3.1 Disasters of War (1810 - 20)

Annotations:

  • Series of prints from etchings/aquatint
1.1.1.1.1.3.2 Saturn Devouring His Son

Annotations:

  • - 1819 - 1823 Black Paintings series - Not meant for public display - Precursor expressionism - Isolated himself: House of the Deaf Man - Time as devourer - Fatherland consuming children
1.1.1.1.1.3.3 The Family of Charles IV (1800)

Annotations:

  • - Retarded expressions - Mocking royalty - Deviate attention from King - Self-insertion
1.1.1.1.1.3.4 The Third of May, 1808 (1814)

Annotations:

  • - Spanish resistance to Napoleon's armies during the occupation of 1808 Peninsular War - Resemblance to Christ - Inhuman adversary - Rawness -Church in background: no salvation
1.1.1.1.1.4 Theodore Gericault
1.1.1.1.1.4.1 The Raft of Medusa (1819)

Annotations:

  • - Large-scale painting of men who were not heroes - Political  allegory of France: Whole society on a raft - Pyramidal composition
1.1.1.1.1.5 Context
1.1.1.1.1.5.1 Counter Enlightenment

Annotations:

  • - Senses > Reason/Intellect - Against the rationalisation of nature
1.1.1.1.1.5.2 Industrial Revolution as corrupt

Annotations:

  • -Rapid rise in population - Civillisation as corrupt and eroding morals - Human innocence/freedom/happiness threatened - Nature as being of beauty/innocence/virtue
1.1.1.1.1.5.3 Liberty, equality, fraternity

Annotations:

  • - Inequalities and injustices of society - Individual > society - Originality/Experimentation - Intuition/inner reality - Wilderness, expression
1.1.1.1.1.6 JMW Turner

Annotations:

  • - Dramatic landscapes - Turbulent and fantastic scenery - Feeling of the sublime - "Colour is released from any defining outlines in order to express the forces of nature, as well as the painter's emotional response to them"
1.1.1.1.1.6.1 The Slave Ship (1840)
1.1.1.1.1.6.2 Rain, Steam and Speed: The Great Western Railway (1844)
1.1.1.1.1.7 John Constable

Annotations:

  • - Naturalistic landscapes - Closely observed tranquil nature - Religious reverence for landscape - Counteract industrialisation and urbanisation
1.1.1.1.1.7.1 The Corn Field (1826)
1.1.1.1.1.7.2 The Haywain (1821)
1.1.1.1.2 Ingres
1.1.1.1.2.1 Grand Odalisque (1814)
1.1.1.1.2.2 The Turkish Bath (1862)
1.1.1.1.2.3 Firmness of outline
1.1.1.1.2.4 "Drawing is 7/8 of what makes up painting"
1.1.1.1.2.5 "Paint should be as smooth as the skin of an onion"
1.1.1.1.3 Jacques-Louis David

Annotations:

  • -Actively supported French Revolution - Propaganda art
1.1.1.1.3.1 Oath of the Horatii (1784)

Annotations:

  • -Story from pre-republican Rome - Three bros going to battle, one of the women engaged one of the men they were going to fight
1.1.1.1.3.2 Death of Marat (1793)

Annotations:

  • - Revolutionary stabbed to death in his bathtub - Pain and outrage -Directness with detail - Political martyr
1.1.1.1.3.3 Napoleon Crossing the St Bernard (1800)
1.1.1.1.4 Context

Annotations:

  • -Monarchy represented an irresponsible way of life - Clamour for equality and freedom - Art against wasteful living - Purpose: Serve the nation, inspire civic virtues
1.1.1.1.4.1 After French Revolution
1.1.1.1.4.2 Napoleon dictatorship for next 15 years

Annotations:

  • Legitimise the regime
1.1.1.1.4.3 Moral revolution
1.1.1.2 Context

Annotations:

  • - Need for spontaneity and novelty - Demands for freedom from academic restrictions
1.1.2 Context

Annotations:

  • - Rise of opera - Reaction to overly scientific painting, injection of emotion
1.2 Context

Annotations:

  • - Secularization - Scientific advancement - Rise of Humanism - Oil paints
1.3 Subject Matter
1.3.1 Greek/Roman revival
1.3.2 Biblical themes
1.3.3 History
1.3.4 Allegories
1.3.5 Mythology
1.4 Characteristics
1.4.1 Realistic perspective, central axis composition
1.4.2 Manipulation of light and dark
1.4.3 Atmospheric perspective
1.4.4 Accurate anatomy
1.4.5 Reason and order
2 MODERNISM
2.1 Impressionism 1862 - 1868

Annotations:

  • - Outdoor scenes - Everyday life - Nature's fleeting moment - Immediate sensations of light - Sensory impressions - Calling attention to painting surface (impasto) - Focus on formal element instead of subject matter paved the way for abstraction
2.1.1 Post-Impressionism 1880 - 1905

Annotations:

  • - Anti-bourgeois movement 1.) Focus on design/structure - Recovered art's symbolic spiritual/emotional meaning -Formal, near-scientific 2.) Expression through color- Refusal to imitate nature
2.1.1.1 Symbolism 1880s

Annotations:

  • - Forerunner of Surrealism - Saw Realism as trivial - Optical world rejected - Exploration of feeling, fantasy, dream, imagination - Mysterious, sensuous subjects - Not to see, but to see through - Deeper significance - Signs and symbols - Synthesis of form and feeling, of realiity and subjectivity
2.1.1.1.1 Fauvism 1904 - 1909

Annotations:

  • - Fauves: Wild beasts - applied by critic Louis Vauxcelles - Explosive/aggressive colours - Broad brushwork - Falls under bigger category of expressionism, along with German expressionism and Abstract expressionism
2.1.1.1.1.1 Expressionism 1905 - 1930

Annotations:

  • - German expressionism - Importance of self-expression
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Cubism 1907 - 1914

Annotations:

  • - Every aspect of a whole subject, seen simultaneously in a single dimension - Breaking down subjects into facet - 2 Phases: analytical and synthetic cubism
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Futurism 1910 - 1930

Annotations:

  • - Developed among 5 Italian artists - Eg: Boccioni, Marinetti, Balla, Severini - 1911 Manifesto - "All subjects previously used must be swept aside in order to express our whirling life of steel, of pride, of fever, and of speed" - Cubism sped up, haha - Most radical and violent movement of its time - "We want to sing the love of danger, the habit of energy and rashness" - "Standing on the world's summit we launch once again our insolent challenge to the stars!"
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Dada 1916 - 1930

Annotations:

  • - Anti-art movement - Dematerialisation of art: Art existing as an IDEA- Began in New York and Zurich independently- "Cubism was a school of painting, futurism a political movement: DADA is a state of mind." -Andre Breton- "But the real Dadas are against Dada" -Tristan Tzara- Self destructed in a form of meta-irony- Nihilistic- Noise music, nonsense poems, random chance, readymades
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 De Stijl 1917 - 1931

Annotations:

  • - Founded in the Netherlands in 1917 - Post WWI was a time of balance petween individual and universal values - Total integration between art and life
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Surrealism 1924 - 1940)

Annotations:

  • - Founded by French writer Andre Breton - Influenced by Sigmund Freud's theories of psychoanalysis - Stressed the value of memories and unconscious experiences - Importance of dreams and reaching them using free association  -  Superior reality
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Abstract Expressionism 1940s

Annotations:

  • - Image is created through the action of painting rather than abstracting the image from real objects - Henceforth, shift of artistic capital to America
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Pop Art 1950 - 1970

Annotations:

  • - Art no longer isolated from consumer-oriented imagery - portrayal of contemporary experience - Derived from Dada - Pop culture
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Context

Annotations:

  • - Reaction against Abstract Expressionism's inaccessibility/incomprehensibility and elitism - Celebration of post-war consumerism, but at the same time a critique through irony
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Richard Hamilton

Annotations:

  • - Declared that Pop Art shoudl be: - Designed for a mass audience- Transient - Expendable (short term and easily forgotten) - Low cost, mass-produced - Witty, sexy, glamorous
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 Just what is it that makes today's homes so different, so appealing? (1956)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3 Jasper Johns
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.1 Flag (1954 - 55)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.2 Target with Four Faces (1955)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.4 Robert Rauschenberg
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.4.1 Monogram (1959)

Annotations:

  • - "Combines" - stuffed Angora goat  - snout is covered in multicolored war paint - standing on a painting as if grazing at a pasture. - tire tread painted white - paintings on the canvas plus newspaper clippings, fragments of wooden signs, shoe sole, police barrier.   - dingy tennis ball behind goat: it shat the painting - natural vs industrial - goat as a symbol of the damned; artist was bisexual
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.4.2 Retroactive I (1963)

Annotations:

  • - Mass media images - Commentary on society using the very images that created that society - Commercially-prepared photographic silk screens
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.5 Roy Lichtenstein
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.5.1 Masterpiece (1962)

Annotations:

  • - Ben Day dots
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.5.2 Whaam! (1963)

Annotations:

  • - Sensationalization, trivialization - Dispassionate - "One of the things a cartoon does is to express violent emotion and passion in a completely mechanized and removed style"
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.6 Claes Oldenburg
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.6.1 Soft Toilet (1966)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.6.2 Dropped Cone (2001)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.7 Andy Warhol

Annotations:

  • - "In the future, everyone will be famous for 15 minutes" - Successful commercial artist. Shoe illustrator. - Use of silkscreen - Liked mechanical repetition and wanted to be a machine himself - made a cult of being boring and banal and superficial - "Just look at the surface of my paintings and films and me, and there I am. There's nothing behind it" - Called his studio 'The Factory'. Open-door.
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.7.1 Four Marilyns (1962)

Annotations:

  • - Bad registration - Reveals the process - Construction of image, both the print and marilyn's public profile - Death and the cult of celebrity - Repeated image: ubiquitous presence in the media
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.7.2 Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom (1985)

Annotations:

  • - Series of "Reigning Queens" - Based on a photograph taken for her Silver Jubilee in 1977 - Presents her as iconic and overly glamorous - Suggests stylized makeup of a Hollywood star; cult of celebrity
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Color field painting

Annotations:

  • - "Cold" abstraction - Flat areas or fields of color to induce contemplation  - Mystic intensity - Psychological use of color - Large scale
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 Mark Rothko

Annotations:

  • - Completely abstract, soft-edge blocks of intense color floating against lighter/darker background - Color blocks occupy an ambiguous spatial zone - Color to stimulate emotional reaction in viewer - Invite contemplation and meditation
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 Orange and Yellow (1956)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.2 Ad Reinhart
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.2.1 Black Painting No. 34 (1964)

Annotations:

  • - Perfect surface extremely delicate and fragile - Physical contact leaves permanent marks - Symbol of purity in a corrupt world - Pushed abstraction to the maximum in color and form - Illusion of unstroked surface - Siphoned off the oil in the paint to create a matte texture - 
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.3 Barnett Newman
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.3.1 Adam (1951 - 52)

Annotations:

  • - ‘Adam’: derived from the Hebrew word adamah (earth), but is also linked with adom (red) and dam (blood) -> man's intimacy with earth - Line represents man, who walks upright - Line also represents the void and separation between man and god
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3 Action Painting

Annotations:

  • Active process and energy of making art - Physical action of painting is not only the means but the end to express subconscious being - Painting as a proces of self discovery - "action painting" coined by critic Harold Rosenberg - "What was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event" - Rosenberg
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.1 Overall style

Annotations:

  • - Fluid network of ense, interlacing lines - Surging complex visual rhythms - Avoided points of emphasis or identifiable parts. No centre of interest or sense of boundary - No distinction between painting and drawing - Final composition sometimes cut out of larger canvas - Abandoned traditional compositions and relations among parts
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.2 Jackson Pollock

Annotations:

  • - Liked cowboys - Was an alcoholic - Died in drunken car crash - Grew up in Wyoming, moved to New York and was influenced by muralists/indian sand  painting - (Influenced scale of paintings) - Painted without planning, embraced accidents
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.2.1 Bird (1941)

Annotations:

  • - Influence of african sand painting and primitivism
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.2.2 Circumcision (1946)

Annotations:

  • - Focal point no longer present - Central focus has been multiplied and decentralized - Fragmented
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.2.3 The Moon Woman (1942)

Annotations:

  • - Compare with Picasso's "Girl Before A Mirror" - Frontal + side view of face: Duality
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.2.4 Composition With Pouring (1943)

Annotations:

  • - Layering of paint explored
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.2.5 Eyes in the Heat (1946)

Annotations:

  • - First time not using brush - Pushed paint around with sticks
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.2.6 Autumn Rhythm: No. 30 (1950)

Annotations:

  • - Circular rhythm
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.2.7 Blue Poles (1952)

Annotations:

  • - Poles reintroduce the conventional notion of figure and ground into his work, but without making any concession to traditional concepts of perspective
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.3 Willem de Kooning

Annotations:

  • - Inspiration from visual perception and themes from the everyday world - Bridged the gap of traditional figure painting to modern abstraction - Direct, vigorous brushwork - Impulsiveness and spontaneity - Dense, compressed forms, sometimes abstract
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.3.1 Seated Figure (Classic Male) (1940)

Annotations:

  • - Was influenced by Picasso - influenced Francis Bacon - Attempt to merge fore- and background
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.3.2 Pink Angels (1945)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.3.3 Excavation (1950)

Annotations:

  • - SUbject matter is a rice field and workers - Process: Always drawing and removing (scraping) - One plane, no focal  point - organization of space into loose, sliding planes with open contours. - tension between figuration and abstraction
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.3.4 Woman I (1950 - 52)

Annotations:

  • - Response to American objectification of women as billboard models - Reminder that women are capable of destruction
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.3.5 Untitled (1958)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.3.6 Villa Borghese (1960)

Annotations:

  • Landscape
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.4 Franz Kline

Annotations:

  • - Gestural strokes in black and white - SImilar to oriental calligraphy - Abstract New York city scapes - Transformation of New York during hte 1950s - torn down and rebuilt - Work resembled scaffolding and high-rise buildings during construction
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.4.1 Painting Number 2 (1954)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Context

Annotations:

  • - Response to WWI - Just like Dada - Most Dadaists migrated to Surrealism
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3 Naturalistic Surrealism

Annotations:

  • - Dealt with recognizable scenes that metamorphosed into dream/nightmare
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.1 Giorgio de Chirico

Annotations:

  • - Interested in Nietzche's writings (hidden reality revealed through strange juxtapositions) - Metaphysical painting: the otherworldly, enigmatic -Eerily still - References to Classical past
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.1.1 The Song of Love (1914)

Annotations:

  • - Colors of the italian flag - Superiority of the old in face of the new
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.1.2 Melancholy and Mystery of a Street (1914)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.2 Max Ernst

Annotations:

  • - FROTTAGE: First form of visual automatism - Collage from magazines- French for 'rubbing'- Shading paper with pencil over textured surface - GRATTAGE: scraping - Paint layer on canvas, laid over textured object, the scraped over - COULAGE: Pouring molten material into cold water - OSCILLATION: Tin of paint on a swinging rope
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.2.1 Two Children are Threatened by a Nightingale (1924)

Annotations:

  • - Ernst experienced a hallucination where the wood grain on a panel took on "successively the aspect of an eye, a nose, a bird's head, a menacing nightingale, a spinning top, and so on"
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.2.2 The Eye of Silence (1943 - 44)

Annotations:

  • - Experimented with the texture of the picture surface, leaving surface effects to chance
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.3 Salvador Dali

Annotations:

  • - Aim: To project the world of dreams as convincingly as possible - Spanish - From childhood was subjected to hallucinations and acts of sudden/uncontrollable violence EARLY INFLUENCES: Studied how to prepresent objects in space and light with utmost precision - Futurism: Time and space as one, taste for organic distortion as a process of growth - De Chirico's endless space, use of light for psychological reasons, and trompe l'oeil details - PARANOID CRITICAL METHOD: - Technique invokes paranoid state to harness the brain's ability to perceive links between irrational things - Ambiguous images to be interpreted in several ways
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.3.1 The Metamorphosis of Narcissus (1936 - 37)

Annotations:

  • - Can be seen as both a giant figure and giant hand
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.3.1.1 Sleep (1939)

Annotations:

  • - "I have often imagined the monster of sleep as a heavy, giant head with a tapering body held up by the crutches of reality. When the crutches break we have the sensation of falling" - 'falling sensation' as a memory of the expulsion from the womb at birth
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.3.2 Animated Still Life (1956)

Annotations:

  • - Overturns the central notion of a still life painting - Probably derived idea from Atomicus photo - Influence of Magritte
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.3.3 Crucifixion (1954)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.4 Rene Magritte

Annotations:

  • - Began as commercial artist designing wallpapers and fashion ads - Used mastery of realism to defy logic in his Surrealist work - Juxtaposition of man-made and natural objects, and between words and images - Disturbing ambiguity- "Like the chance encounter of a sewing machine and an umbrella on an operating table" - Exploited discrepancies of scale and gravity
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.4.1 The Human Condition (1934)

Annotations:

  • - Canvas has a picture of what we assume to be the view - Pun: Paintings as 'window' to reality  - Painted realistically: Is the landscape real or painted? - "This is how we see the world: as being outside ourselves, even though it is only a mental picture of what we experience inside ourselves"
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.4.2 The Treachery of Images (1928 - 29)

Annotations:

  • - Comment on human tendency to label everything - Mimics advertising
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.4.3 Not to be Reproduced (1937)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.4.4 The Golconda (1953)

Annotations:

  • - Wallpaper-like patterning - Windows cut off abruptly - Figures not exactly identical
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.4 Biomorphic Surrealism

Annotations:

  • - Automatism, free association - Eliminate conscious control - Close to abstraction
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.4.1 Joan Miro

Annotations:

  • - The first to create imagery using automatic techniques in which forms seemed to emerge directly from the unconscious - Organic imagery, weird and disturbing humor
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.4.1.1 Man and Woman in Front of a Pile of Excrement (1935)

Annotations:

  • -Impossible embrace -apocalyptic sky
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.4.2 Paul Klee
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.4.2.1 The Twittering Machine (1922)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Context
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 New art a New Society: utopian ideals

Annotations:

  • - Non-objective art as the new post-war ideal
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.2 Theosophy

Annotations:

  • - Spiritual movement in late 19th century - Realize absolute truth by studying all religions - Search for absolute resonated with abstraction - Painting could capture a deeply significant invisible reality
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3 Piet Mondrian

Annotations:

  • NEOPLASTICISM - Painting as a 'plastic' (malleable) form - "Abolition of all particular form" - Abstraction of form and color ; straight lines and primary colors
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.1 Flowering Apple Tree (1912)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.2 Composition No. 10 (Pier and Ocean) (1915)

Annotations:

  • - Pure geometry - Pristine, mathematical, mechanical - No emotion
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.3 Composition with Red, Yellow, and Blue (1920)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.4 Broadway Boogie-Woogie (1942 - 43)

Annotations:

  • - Yellow and gray areas painted with the same luminance, causing jittery obtical effect
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.5 New York City I (1942)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.6 Lozenge Composition with Yellow, Black, Blue, Red, and Gray (1921)

Annotations:

  • - lines do not extend all the way to the edge of canvas. stop at 45 degree angle. - Rich in surface textures - Different blocks painted in different thicknesses/directions
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Context

Annotations:

  • Reaction against WWI and failings of the system
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3 Marcel Duchamp

Annotations:

  • - Rejected by Cubists - Interest in mechanical parts/workings - Exploration of motion, similar to Futurists - 1923 abandoned art, played chess for 10 years
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.1 Nude Descending a Staircase (1912)

Annotations:

  • Nudes usually painted with respect; what Duchamp did was outrageous
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.2 Sad Young Man on a Train (1911)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.3 Bicycle Wheel (1951)

Annotations:

  • -  First kinetic sculpture - Idle visual pleasure: Duchamp said he simply enjoyed gazing at the wheel while it spun, likening it to gazing into a fireplace. - Comic effect: an ordinary unicycle is a comical thing; upside-down and immobile it might be hilarious. - Juxtaposition of motion and stasis - art without any pretense of artifice, and unconcerned with imitating reality in any way.
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.4 The Large Glass (1915 - 23)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.4 Hannah Hoch
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.4.1 Lights and Shadows
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.4.2 The Bride (1933)

Annotations:

  • Different races juxtaposed and combined
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.5 Man Ray
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.5.1 Cadeau (Gift) (1958)

Annotations:

  • - gives a common object a symbolic function. The flatiron, associated with social expectations of propriety and middle-class values, becomes a subversive attack on social expectations.  - Even if the iron is no longer used for pressing clothes, the object resonates with ruinous, violent possibilities.
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.5.2 Indestructible Object (Object to be Destroyed) (1964)

Annotations:

  • -  irritation over being watched, and powerlessness in the face of endless time. There is no means to stop the cycle, except to destroy the object itself.- “Other contraptions of mine have been destroyed by visitors; not always through ignorance nor by accident, but willfully, as a protest. But I have managed to make them indestructible, that is, by making duplicates very easily.”  - Idea behind the work cannot be erased - demeans the value of “original” art and craftsmanship in the true spirit of Dada.
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.5.3 Untitled Rayograph [Scissors and Cut Paper] (1927)

Annotations:

  • - Scissors and cut paper - "I paint what cannot be photographed" - "I photograph what I do not wish to paint"
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Umberto Boccioni
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 Unique Forms of Continuity in Space (1913)

Annotations:

  • - Cast in bronze 1931 (posthumously) - "these days I am obsessed by sculpture! I believe I have glimpsed a complete renovation of that mummified art." - originally inspired by the sight of a football player moving on to a perfectly weighted pass - Strong forward stride, yet treads lightly. - triumph over the limitations of the human stride to suggest unending movement into infinite space
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3 Giocome Balla
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.1 Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash (1912)

Annotations:

  • - abrupt close up - similar to multiple exposure photography
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.2 Abstract Speed + Sound (1913 - 14)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.3 Abstract Speed (1913)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Pablo Picasso

Annotations:

  • - Blue Period (1901 - 1904) - Rose Period (1904 - 1906) - Cubism (1907 - 1914) - Return to the figurative - Reinterpreting Old Masters
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 Poor People on the Seashore (The Tragedy) (1903)

Annotations:

  • - Blue Period - His friend Casagemas committed suicide - Cold palette - Themes of misery, alienation
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.2 Portrait of Gertrude Stein (1906 - 07)

Annotations:

  • - Gertrude was one of his first patrons - Influence of primitivism - Elongation of features - Geometrical emphasis
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.3 Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907)

Annotations:

  • - Cubism -  Influence from African masks- Simultaneity of frontal and profile view- Fragmentation of space
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.4 La Toilette (1906)

Annotations:

  • - Rose Period - After meeting his first love, Fernande Olivier - Rose-hued and earthy palette - Circus performers
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.5 The Burial of Casagemas (1901)

Annotations:

  • - Similarity to El Greco's 'The Funeral of Count Orgaz"
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.6 Maquette for Guitar (1912)

Annotations:

  • - Synthetic Cubism (1912) - Objects and shapes cut from paper/other materials - Represent parts of a subject to play visual games - Variations on illusion and reality --cutaway view, allows viewer to see surface and interior space, both mass and void
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.7 Three Musicians (1921)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.8 Two Women (La Muse) (1935)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.3 Girl With a Mandolin (1910)

Annotations:

  • - Analytical Cubism (1907 - 12) - Every possible vantage point into a pictorial whole - Concerned with pure form, not color, texture, character, or representation
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.4 George Braque
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.4.1 The Portuguese (1911)

Annotations:

  • - use of stencilled text draws attention to the canvas itself - fragmentation as a strategy to display all angles and aspects of the subject on a static canvas
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.4.2 Bottle, Newspaper, Pipe, and Glass (1913)

Annotations:

  • -paper colle- "stuck paper" -charcoal shows surface as well as transparency  -paper with printed wood grain  -first to use materials not considered 'high art' materials
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.5 Robert Delaunay
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.5.1 Champs de Mars (The Red Tower)

Annotations:

  • multiple viewpoints, rhythmic fragmentation, and strong color contrasts
2.1.1.1.1.1.2 Die Bruke

Annotations:

  • - Formed in 1905 - "The Bridge" - Founder: E L Kirchner - Artists formed a guild and lived together - Idea of man in nature - Revival of graphic arts
2.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
2.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 Street, Berlin (1913)
2.1.1.1.1.1.3 Der Blau Reiter

Annotations:

  • - Formed in 1911 - Founders: Kadinsky and Marc - Later members: Rousseau, klee - Influenced Abstract Expressionism
2.1.1.1.1.1.3.1 Franz Marc
2.1.1.1.1.1.3.1.1 The Large Blue Horses (1911)

Annotations:

  • - absence of a rider is in keeping with Marc's own belief in the supremacy of animal spirituality over that of humans
2.1.1.1.1.1.3.2 Wassily Kandinsky

Annotations:

  • - Interested in Theosophy (belief system with links to Buddhism and mysticism) - Explored paint through new theories of atomic structures, concluded that material objects had no real substnace
2.1.1.1.1.1.3.2.1 Improvisation 6 (1909)

Annotations:

  • - "African"
2.1.1.1.1.1.3.2.2 The Blue Rider (1903)
2.1.1.1.1.1.3.2.3 Lyrical (1911)
2.1.1.1.1.1.3.2.4 Composition VIII (1923)
2.1.1.1.1.2 Context
2.1.1.1.1.2.1 1905 Salon d'Autumne
2.1.1.1.1.3 Andre Derain
2.1.1.1.1.3.1 Charing Cross Bridge, London (1906)
2.1.1.1.1.4 Maurice de Vlaminck

Annotations:

  • - Ignored details - Violent color and brushwork - Declared that he "loved van Gogh that day more than my own father" after exhibition - From 1908 his palette grew more monochromatic (Cezanne's influence) - Later work displayed a dark palette, punctuated by heavy strokes of contrasting white paint.
2.1.1.1.1.4.1 The River Seine at Chatou (1906)
2.1.1.1.1.5 Henri Matisse

Annotations:

  • - French - Believed that color plays a primary role in conveying meaning - "The chief function of color should be to serve expression as well as possible" - Sold his wife's engagement ring to buy Cezanne's 'Three Bathers'
2.1.1.1.1.5.1 Portrait of Madame Matisse (1905)

Annotations:

  • - "The green stripe" - Warm and cool - Japanese influence?
2.1.1.1.1.5.2 Woman with a Hat (1905)

Annotations:

  • - Simultaneously a wild expression of colors and a cold, calculated reduction of the subject - Vehement criticism from Symbolists
2.1.1.1.1.5.3 The Red Room (1908 - 09)

Annotations:

  • - Decorative interior - Patterning
2.1.1.1.1.5.4 Blue Nude II (1952)

Annotations:

  • - Part of his Jazz Series - Paper cutout - Stylized
2.1.1.1.2 Context
2.1.1.1.2.1 French literary movement in the 1880s
2.1.1.1.3 Edvard Munch

Annotations:

  • - Norwegian - Painter/Printmaker - Influenced German expressionism - "The angels of fear, sorrow and death stood by my side since the day I was born" - "I do not believe in the art which is not the compulsive result of Man's urge to open his heart" - "My art is really a voluntary confession and an attempt to explain to myself my r/s with life - it is, therefore, actually a sort of egoism, but I am constantly hoping that through this I can help others achieve clarity"
2.1.1.1.3.1 Puberty (1894 - 95)

Annotations:

  • - Strange shadow - Red face, awkward - Elongated legs - Black tones
2.1.1.1.3.2 The Scream (1893)

Annotations:

  • - Sunken/lightbulb head - Swirling sky - Complementary colors - Emotional distres - Discordance - Ghoulish - Highly simplified - Juxtaposition of figures, 2 people in background seem oblivious and distant - Sudden depression that descended upon him at a fjord
2.1.1.1.3.3 Death in the Sickroom (1895)

Annotations:

  • - SIster's death - Small head- Flat- Solemn- Muted colors- Rigid- No interaction/movement- Pallid blue-grey
2.1.1.1.3.4 Ashes (1894)

Annotations:

  • - His relationship with a woman - Distress - Stringy hair - High contrast - Gradation, but flat forms - Exasperation - Black vs White - Background: hollowness, mystery, endless void
2.1.1.1.4 Gustave Klimt

Annotations:

  • - Austrian - Female body, eroticism - Use of gold leaf similar to Byzantine religious art - Flattened images
2.1.1.1.4.1 The Kiss (1907 - 08)

Annotations:

  • - Couple is intertwined on a meadow, wrapped in full gilded clothing.  - Cape: mosaic, black and white rectangles for man, coloured circles and the flowers for woman.  - Intimacy: union of heads and hands  - Couple is insulated in sublimation, oblivious to outside world
2.1.1.1.4.2 Danae (1907 - 08)

Annotations:

  • - Symbol of divine love, transcendence, sensational beauty  - Raised leg: tribute to Titian series of paintings of same name.  - Story: Danae was imprisoned by father. Visited by Zeus in form of golden rain flowing between her legs. Soon after, Danae was pregnant with Perseus. 
2.1.1.2 Context

Annotations:

  • - No common artistic goal, merely a bidirectional reaction against Impressionism
2.1.1.3 Paul Cezanne

Annotations:

  • - Father of modern art - Greatly influenced Matisse/Picasso - "I want to make of Impressionism something solid and durable, like the art of the museums" - Early work imitated Courbet: thick paint with palette knife - Use of color to construct form - Worked slowly and methodically, studied subjects for a long time - Preoccupied with underlying geometry
2.1.1.3.1 Table Corner ( 1985 - 1900)

Annotations:

  • - Use of multiple perspectives - Precursor to cubism
2.1.1.3.2 The Large Bathers (1898 - 1905)

Annotations:

  • - Bipyramidal composition - 
2.1.1.4 Georges-Pierre Seurat

Annotations:

  • - Neo-impressionist - Oranization of color on canvas - Static, unmoving quality - Pointilism, optical mixing
2.1.1.4.1 A Sunday on La Grand Jatte (1884 - 86)

Annotations:

  • - Stylized - Ambiguous, anonymous - Not about social commentary
2.1.1.4.2 Bathers at Asnieres (1884)

Annotations:

  • - Workmen taking leisure by the river - Moment in time captured forever, as if in stone -Enormous amount of labour - Not pointilist, but reworked with dots of contrasting colour - Figures in profile, may have been influenced by Egyptians
2.1.1.5 Vincent van Gogh

Annotations:

  • - Insane dude - Quarrelled with Gaugin, cut off own ear, presented it to a prostitute named Rachel. - Admitted to Saint-Remy asylum - Borrowed a gun, shot himself, bled in cornfield for 3 days, refused medical assistance
2.1.1.5.1 The Sunflowers (1889)

Annotations:

  • - Influence of Japanese prints - Omission of shadows- Broad areas of color-Thick outlines - Lack of perspective - Compositional freedom
2.1.1.5.2 Self Portrait with Bandaged Ear (1889)

Annotations:

  • - Personal catastrophe - Easel in the background - Linking his suffering to his art - Japanese prints in background - Vulnerable yet steady gaze - Looking but not seeing -Contemplation of anguish
2.1.1.5.3 Starry Night (1889)

Annotations:

  • - Imaginary church - Contours and lines to capture shapes and movement of night - Thick impasto, choppy, heavy strokes of wavy ribbons - Dramatic use of of color/texture - Simplified forms - Rhythmic, different halo sizes, swirling clouds and stars - Directional strokes for wind - Stood up three nights in a row to paint
2.1.1.6 Paul Gauguin

Annotations:

  • - Spiritual truth of subject matter - Flat colors - Went to tahiti because he viewed it as exotic and mysterious
2.1.1.6.1 Yellow Christ (1889)

Annotations:

  • - Traditional Mary replaced by Breton women with headdresses - Christ with Gauguin's face - Cross in Brittany - No perspective or modelling - Blue outlines
2.1.1.6.2 Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? (1897)

Annotations:

  • - Symbolizes various stages of life and questions of destiny - Baby & 3 young women - (Middle) 2 Women talk about destiny - Puzzled/half-aggressive man - (Middle) youth plucking fruit of experience. Eats fruit, overlooked by remote presence of an idol (spiritual need) - (Left) Woman broods, old woman prepares to die. White bird as symbol of afterlife
2.1.2 Edgar Degas

Annotations:

  • - Circus, opera, women at work, nudes, contemporary life - BALLERINAS - Off-center figures, cropped at edge of canvas - Empty spaces, clustered figures - Unplanned, spontaneous scenes - Did not paint outdoors - No interest in landscapes or light - Used pastels
2.1.2.1 The Dance Class (1873 - 76)
2.1.3 Edouard Manet

Annotations:

  • - Bridge between Realism and Post-impressionism - Strong outlines, use of black
2.1.3.1 Lunch on the Grass (1863)

Annotations:

  • - Ordinary people as subject matter - Acknowledgement of viewer - Pointed finger at audience - Unidealized nude - Public only accepted nudes if they represented goddesses or idealized beauty
2.1.3.2 Olympia (1863)

Annotations:

  • -Boldly gazing at viewer - Gift from admirer - Not fully nude - Seen as disrespectful parody of the old masters' work
2.1.4 Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Annotations:

  • - Women, flowers, children, sunny outdoor scenes - "Why shouldn't art be pretty? There are enough unpleasant things in the world." - Refused to use black, "it is not a color" - Pals with Monet!
2.1.4.1 Le Moulin de la Galette (1876)

Annotations:

  • - Forms fragmented into patches of colour to give impression of flickering light through leaes - Quick, short, loose brushwork - Sense of constant movement to capture the dance - Abrupt cropping suggests it is a part of a bigger whole - Photo-like composition - Unposed, candid. Back view of some subjects
2.1.5 Context

Annotations:

  • - Recovery from economic/spiritual depression + new inventions - Portability of paint + cameras - Salon of Refusals in 1863 - Japonisme - Color theory - - No use of black (not a colour) - Optical mixing instead of smooth blending
2.1.5.1 Japonisme

Annotations:

  • -Japanese aesthetic - Spatial organisation - Flat shapes, unmodelled colour areas - Decorative quality - Patterning - Odd cropping - Beauty in asymmetry/imperfection
2.1.6 Claude Monet

Annotations:

  • - Sight began to fail in his last years, but continued painting - About Japonisme: "I like the suggestive quality of their aesthetic, which evokes presence by a shadow and the whole by a part"
2.1.6.1 La Grenouillere (1869)

Annotations:

  • - Jabbing of brush - Textures through brushstrokes and not linework - Vertical strokes of boat contrasting with horizontal strokes of water
2.1.6.2 Impression: Sunrise (1872)

Annotations:

  • - Shown at 1st impressionist exhibition - Purpose was to be entirely faithful to reality in tone/color- Spawned the movement name
2.1.6.3 Gare St Lazare (1877)

Annotations:

  • - snapshot-like - Rule of thirds focal point - Urbaniastion: movement towards a sense of the city - Impasto/dry brush: smoke - Flickering effect on surface of painting - Muted colours - No delineation of forms
2.1.6.4 Madam Monet in a Japanese Costume (1875)

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