Theory in teaching

Richard West
Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

Mind Map on Theory in teaching, created by Richard West on 09/20/2013.

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Richard West
Created by Richard West about 6 years ago
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Theory in teaching
1 Teacher development
1.1 3 Phases of teaching Fuller 1969 - self - task - impact
1.1.1 Level of impact concern varies with individual - Pigge and Marso 1997 ; Clark and Conway 2003
1.2 Reflexive approach need to question and evaluate Addison and Burgess 2007
1.3 University
1.3.1 Challenging view of TT and UNI - Holt 1990
1.3.2 PGCE gradual introduction to teaching - akn complex relationship between subject knowledge and pedagogy - Prentice 2007
1.4 Behaviour Management
1.4.1 Alternative rather than ultimatums - Simmon & Hawkins 2009, Cowley 2010
1.4.2 Development of effective Pupil - Teacher Relationship - Elton Report 1989
1.5 Practical Stuff
1.5.1 Phil Beadle - How to teach
1.6 Mentoring
1.6.1 Use of Model and Support L Daloz 1986
1.6.1.1 Retreat
1.6.1.2 Growth
1.6.1.3 Stasis
1.6.1.4 Confirmation
1.7 Integrating in to school environment
1.7.1 "All trainees have their own perceptions of how they are being dealt with" Fletcher, S. 2001
2 Students
2.1 Behavior
2.1.1 Pupil behaviour and the impact of teaching
2.1.1.1 Hallam and Rogers (2008)
2.1.2 role normative assumptions play on defining pupil behaviour
2.1.2.1 (Graham, L 2007)
2.1.3 Consider quality of teaching - Rowe 2006
2.2 ethnicity
2.2.1 Hallam and Rogers (2008)
2.3 Learning & Development
2.3.1 Stages of development
2.3.1.1 3 Stages of development - enactive, iconic, symbolic - Bruner cit in Kyriacou 1986
2.3.1.2 Piaget 4 Stages of child devlelopment - Sensorimotor, preoperation, concrete operational, formal operations
2.3.2 Associative / Behaviouirist - Building Concepts step by step
2.3.2.1 Skinner
2.3.2.1.1 law of Operant conditioning - electrocuting mice
2.3.2.1.1.1 making mistakes demoralised learners and interfered with their steady progress - skinner cited in Moore 2000
2.3.2.2 Gagne (Instructivism and Instructional Design)
2.3.3 Constructive
2.3.3.1 Individual - Achieving understanding through active discovery
2.3.3.1.1 Piaget
2.3.3.1.2 Papert
2.3.3.1.3 Kolb
2.3.3.1.4 Biggs
2.3.3.1.5 ‘The brain learns when it is trying to make sense; when it is building on what it already knows, when it recognises the significance of what it is doing; when it is working in complex, multiple perspectives” (Abbott (1994) cited in Hoult)
2.3.3.2 Social - Achieving understanding through dialogue and collaboration
2.3.3.2.1 Bruner
2.3.3.2.1.1 When selecting an educational theory Bruner stresses the importance of understanding “what you want to use the knowledge for.” (Bruner, 2006)
2.3.3.2.1.2 Bruner (1966:135) ‘Learning is an active process during which children construct their knowledge from past and present experiences’
2.3.3.2.2 Vygotsky (Social Development)
2.3.3.2.2.1 Vygotsky’ Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) What I can do, What I think I can do, What I can't do
2.3.3.2.3 Laurillard and Pask (Conversation Theory)
2.3.3.3 Minimal guidance in instruction does not work - Kirschner et al
2.3.4 Situative
2.3.4.1 Developing Practices in a commmunity Lave & Wenger
2.3.4.1.1 Applying sit learning - Extended projects in which pupils are genuinely building something
2.3.4.2 Cole, Engstrom and Wertsch (Activity Theory)
2.3.5 Accelerated Learning
2.3.5.1 Drink water - Trevor Brocklebank at Leeds cited in Lucas, 2001
2.3.5.2 Comprehension,Commitment, Control - Silcock 2003
2.3.5.2.1 Children applying themselves voluntarily to work thereby acknowledge its worth: i.e. they make a value-commitment (see Silcock and Duncan, 2001, for a longer discussion of this).
2.3.5.2.2 The second is that they have the intellectual tools needed to manage the job in hand in ways expected of them, and see that they have. A girl faced by a scientific exercise must know both what the exercise asks of her and be confident, in her own mind, she has suitable means for tackling it.
2.3.5.2.3 those who truly commit themselves to a project realise its worth for them, as well as knowing they are potentially capable of accomplishing the tasks are involved
2.3.5.2.4 Black argues the same (1998), as does Broadfoot (2001):The learning theory espoused is that learners progress via their own commitments, in situations they - in Silcock 2003
2.3.5.2.5 Pupils, similarly, easily divorce themselves emotionally from classrooms or subjects where they are unsure what is going on. - Silcock 2003
2.3.5.2.6 Not only should teachers always move from known to unknown, they should regularly revisit familiar territory to ensure the webs of knowledge which are called 'cognitive structures' really are interconnecting - Silcock 2003
2.3.6 Adey and Shayer (1994) stress, learning accelerates when pupils conquer real challenges set for them not when problems are pre-eliminated. in Silcock 2003
2.3.7 Intervention not instruction
2.3.7.1 Adey and Shayer free learners to suggest their own solutions to problems, discuss and explain these to others, debating and arguing about outcomes. But, once they begin to make progress, pupils are led to an understanding of principles behind the scientific work engaged with. Teachers,
2.4 Knowledge retention
2.4.1 Ebbinghaus - Memory Curve
3 Teaching techniques
3.1 Advanced Organisers - Ausubel
3.1.1 information presented by an instructor that helps the student organize new incoming information.[6] This is achieved by directing attention to what is important in the coming material, highlighting relationships, and providing a reminder about relevant prior knowledge - Woolfolk, A.E., Winne, P.H., Perry, N.E., & Shapka, J. (2010). Educational Psychology (4th ed).
3.1.2 Comparative - Activate existing schemas
3.1.3 Expository - Introduce new knowledge
4 Schools
4.1 Transition

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