English lit lang: Theorists

Mind Map by loopy_1996, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by loopy_1996 about 5 years ago


Mind Map on English lit lang: Theorists, created by loopy_1996 on 03/11/2015.

Resource summary

English lit lang: Theorists
1 Grice
1.1 Quantity
1.1.1 Not too much not too little- Don't give more information that is asked "What is your name?" "my name is Bob"
1.2 Quality
1.2.1 Truth is told, with evidence 'i got an A as i got 90%'
1.3 Relevance
1.3.1 Each speaker says something relevant For example in a job interview- stay on topic
1.4 Manner
1.4.1 Each speaker says something clear 'Turn left, then right, at the next street'
1.5 Maxims in Action: A: "How do i get to Asda mate?" B: "Go straight ahead, turn right at the school, then left at the bus stop"
1.5.1 Speaker A assumes that: B believes the directions to be genuine= Quality
1.5.2 Speaker A assumes that: B believes the information to be sufficient= Quantity
1.5.3 Speaker A assumes that: B believes the information to is clear=Manner
1.5.4 Speaker A assumes that: B believes his directions are to Asda= Relevance
2 Leech
2.1 Tact
2.1.1 Minimises the cost to the listener and maximizes the cost to the speaker "Sorry can i talk to you please?"
2.2 Generosity
2.2.1 Minimises the benefit to the speaker and maximizes the benefit to the listner "You should come for tea"
2.3 Approbation
2.3.1 Minimises praise to the speaker "yes i have seen that it's unusual"
2.4 Modesty
2.4.1 Minimises praise of the speaker "i'm a bit stupid can you say it again please?"
2.5 Agreement
2.5.1 Minimises disagreement "why don't we go at ten?"
2.6 Sympathy
2.6.1 Minimises antipathy (dislike) and maximises sympathy "Sorry to hear you are not well"
3 Labov
3.1 1.Abstract
3.1.1 Briefly, what is the story about? "A really strange thing happened last night"
3.2 2.Otrientation
3.2.1 Who? what? where? when? "A friend of mine [did this] on friday"
3.3 3.Complicating action
3.3.1 Then what happened? "and then..."
3.4 4.Evaluation
3.4.1 How is this interesting? "and then she got them half price!"
3.5 5.Result or resolution
3.5.1 What finally happened? " it turned out that's why"
3.6 6.Coda
3.6.1 The story is finished
4 Lakoff
4.1 Don't impose
4.1.1 Avoid intruding on other people's lives "Excuse me" "sorry to bother you"
4.2 Give options
4.2.1 Avoid making the listener feel obliged to do something "do you mind?" "is it okay?"
4.3 Make your receiver feel good
4.3.1 Make others feel appreciated "you look nice today"
5 Brown and Levison:FACE
5.1 Positive Politeness
5.1.1 1. Attend to the hearer 2. Avoid disagreement 3.Assume agreement 4.Hedge opinion 1."you must be hungry?" 2."not very small but not very big" 3."so when are you coming to see us?" 4."you really should sort of try harder"
5.2 Negative Politeness
5.2.1 1.Be indirect 2. Request forgiveness 3. minimise imposition 4. pluralize the person responsible 1. "i'm looking for a pen" 2."you must forgive me but... could i borrow your pen?" 3. "i just wanted to ask you if i could use your pen" 4. "we forgot to tell you that it is due in yesterday"
6 Purpose when looking at transcripts of real talk: TRIPE
6.1 T= Transactional- exchanges where there is negotiation or getting something done e.g. asking for directions
6.1.1 R= Referential- Providing information e.g. giving details about an event I= Interactional- exchanges when the main focus is social e.g. catching up on news P= Phatic- small talk e.g. openings or weather comments E= Expressive- conveying and describing feelings e.g. being upset
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