F321: Bonding and Structure

lucyharrison24
Mind Map by lucyharrison24, updated more than 1 year ago
lucyharrison24
Created by lucyharrison24 about 5 years ago
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A level Chemistry Mind Map on F321: Bonding and Structure, created by lucyharrison24 on 03/15/2015.

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F321: Bonding and Structure
1 Ionisation Energies
1.1 Factors affecting ionisation energies
1.1.1 Atomic radius: the greater the radius, the smaller the nuclear attraction by the outer electrons
1.1.2 The greater the nuclear charge, the greater the attraction on the outer electrons,
1.1.3 Electron shielding: inner electrons repel outer electrons, this is called shielding, the more inner shells there are, the greater the shielding and the smallerthe nuclear attraction experienced by the outer electrons.
1.2 Successive ionisation energies
1.2.1 successive ionisation energies are the measure of energy required to remove each electron in turn
1.2.2 e.g second ionisation energy is how easily a 1+ ion can turn into a 2+ ion by loosing 11electron
1.2.3 each successive ionisation energy is higher than the one before
1.2.3.1 as each electron is removed there is less repulsion between the electrons and each shell with de drawn in closer to the neucleus
1.2.3.2 As the distance from the electron to the nucleus is less the higher the nuclear attraction therefore a higher ionisation needed to loose another electron
2 Shells and orbitals
2.1 electrons in each shell
2.1.1 n=1 shell=1 electrons =2
2.1.2 n=2 shell=2 electrons =8
2.1.3 n=3 shell=3 electrons =18
2.1.4 n=4shell =4 electrons =32
2.1.5 each shell holds up to 2n^2
2.1.6 principal quantum number = n
2.2 Atomic Orbitals
2.2.1 S-orbitals
2.2.1.1 sphere shape
2.2.1.2 In every shell
2.2.1.3 Holds up to 2 electrons
2.2.2 P-orbitals
2.2.2.1 3D dumbbell shape
2.2.2.2 from the second shell up they contain 3 p orbitals at right angles to each other
2.2.2.3 each p orbital can hold 2 electrons, total p electrons =6
2.2.3 D&F-orbitals
2.2.3.1 from shell 3 they contain 5 d orbitals and total of 10d electrons
2.2.3.2 from shell 4 they contain 7 f orbitals and total of 14f electrons
3 Sub-shells and energy levels
3.1
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