13 British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America (which were established by Great Britain in the 17th and 18th centuries) fought for their independence.
The Enlightenment ideas of EQUALITY and LIBERTY formed the basis for the independence movement.
1.2.1 Representation in
Great Britain refused to give the colonies representation in Parliament.
Laws were passed in Parliament, including laws related to colonial taxes. The British government increased taxes, and the American colonists refused to pay them.
Prosperous middle-class colonists wanted control over their own commercial activities.
1.3.1 Control over commercial activities
2 THE WAR
2.1 American colonists refuse to pay taxes
2.2 War breaks out 1775
This was a significative triumph for the Enlightenment.
3.1 Declaration of Independence of the USA
4th July 1776
3.2 Great Britain recognises USA
4.1 Written in 1787
4.2 Federal Republic
The US Constitution, written in 1787, established a Federal Republic. Federal is a system in which several regions or states come together to form a country, but retain power over some aspects of their government.
4.2.1 Popular sovereignty
Political system in which citizens have ultimate power. This idea comes from Rousseau.
4.2.2 Separation of powers
The three branches of government (legislative, executive and judiciary) are separate from each other. This idea comes from Montesquieu.
4.3 Legal equality
4.3.1 Limited suffrage
The Constitution recognised the legal equality of all citizens. But in some states, only male citizens with a certain level of wealth and property could vote in elections.