Circulatory System

Danielle Richardson
Mind Map by Danielle Richardson, updated more than 1 year ago
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Degree Medicine (Physiology) Mind Map on Circulatory System, created by Danielle Richardson on 04/09/2015.
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Circulatory System
1 Fetal
1.1 Ductus arteriosus
1.1.1 Kept open by PGE2
1.1.2 Closes within 2-3 days after birth
1.1.2.1 ligamentum arterisum
1.1.3 Patent ductus arteriosus
1.1.3.1 HF
1.1.3.2 Associated with rubella infection
1.1.3.3 Treat with PGE2 inhibitors: indomethacin
1.1.3.4 Heart shunted from aorta to pulmonary arteries
1.2 Foramen ovale
1.2.1 Oval fossa
1.3 Ductus venosus
1.3.1 Ligamentum venosum
1.4 Tetralogy of fallot
1.4.1 Ventricular septal defect
1.4.2 Over-riding aorta
1.4.3 Pulmonary artery stenosis
1.4.4 hypertrophy of RV
2 Vessel layers
2.1 Tunica external
2.1.1 Supplied by
2.1.1.1 Vasa Vasorum
2.1.1.2 Nervi vasorum
2.1.1.3 In elastic arteries and large veins
2.2 Tunica media
2.2.1 Veins don't have elastic
3 Aneurysm
3.1 Permanent dilation in vessel
3.2 True
3.2.1 Tunica media dilated
3.3 False
3.3.1 Bleeding around the vessel
4 Atherosclerosis
4.1 Plaque
4.2 Injury

Annotations:

  • Allows LDLs to enter
4.2.1 Fatty deposits under endothelium- basement membrane
4.2.1.1 Macrophages go investigate become foam cells
4.2.1.1.1 Were macrophages, but ingested oxidised LDLs so look foamy
4.2.1.1.1.1 LDLs
4.2.1.1.1.1.1 low density lipoproteins
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Transports triglycerides surrounded by proteins, phospholipids and cholesterol
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Bring cholesterol to body cells from liver
4.2.1.1.1.1.2 HDLs
4.2.1.1.1.1.2.1 bring cholesterol from body cells to liver
4.2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 Remove excess cholesterol
4.2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 Good
4.2.1.1.1.1.3 Should be low
4.2.1.1.2 Leads to a fatty streak

Annotations:

  • Everything ocurring in basement membrane so far (on top of the tunica media)
4.2.1.1.2.1 Smooth muscle cells from tunica media migrate to tunica externa to create barrier between clot and blood- fibrous cap

Annotations:

  • Macrophages promote this
4.2.1.1.2.1.1 Also put down calcium which stiffens vessel
4.2.1.1.2.1.1.1 The clot can become unstable and rupture
4.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 Leading the the clotting cascade
5 Raynaud phenomenon
5.1 Blood vessels spasm
5.1.1 No blood goes to hands/feet
5.1.2 can be caused by cold or anxiety
6 Metarterioles
6.1 Connect arterioles to venules through capillary bed
6.1.1 Don't close
6.1.2 Post-capillary venules
6.1.2.1 Lymphatic cells migrate between tissue and blood
7 Hypertension
7.1 Complications
7.1.1 Stroke
7.1.1.1 Ischaemic
7.1.1.1.1 Blocked vessel in brain blocked
7.1.1.2 Haemorrhage
7.1.1.2.1 Blood vessel burst
7.1.2 Peripheral Artery Disease
7.1.3 Coronary artery disease
7.1.4 Renal failure
7.1.5 Dementia
7.1.6 HF
7.1.7 Retinal vein occlusion
7.2 Causes
7.2.1 Overweight
7.2.2 Lack of exercise
7.2.3 High salt diet
7.2.4 Alcohol
7.2.5 Smoking
7.2.6 Genetic
7.2.7 Low birth weight
7.3 Pathophysiology
7.3.1 RAA system
7.3.2 Sympathetic NS
7.3.3 Arteriosclerosis
7.3.3.1 In elderly= high systolic BP
7.4 Diagnosing
7.4.1 Type 1
7.4.1.1 >140/90
7.4.1.2 >135/85
7.4.1.2.1 Ambulatory
7.4.1.2.1.1 Best
7.4.2 Type 2
7.4.2.1 >160/100
7.4.2.1.1 >150/95
7.4.3 Severe
7.4.3.1 >180/110
7.4.4 After diagnosing
7.4.4.1 Cardiovascular risk
7.4.4.2 Look for end-organ damage
7.4.4.2.1 Urine test
7.4.4.2.2 Blood test
7.4.4.2.3 Physical examination- heart
7.4.4.2.4 ECG
7.5 Types
7.5.1 Essential (primary) = don't know what causes it
7.5.2 Secondary- cause
7.5.2.1 <30years
7.5.2.2 Renal problems
7.5.2.3 Severe treatment-resistant
7.5.2.4 Cushings
7.6 Treatment
7.6.1 <55yr
7.6.1.1 A
7.6.1.1.1
7.6.1.1.2 -pril
7.6.1.1.2.1 ACE inhibitor
7.6.1.1.3 or angiotensin II antagonist if intolerant
7.6.1.1.3.1 -asartan
7.6.2 >55yrs/ black
7.6.2.1 C or D
7.6.2.1.1 A and C/D
7.6.2.1.1.1 A +C+D
7.6.2.1.1.1.1 Add diuretic, alpha blocker, beta blocker
7.6.2.1.1.1.1.1 B= -lol
7.6.2.1.2 C= pine
7.6.2.1.3 D= actone
8 Blood pressure
8.1 on paper
9 The IVC is usually to the left (my left) of aorta
10 Right dominant circulation
10.1 Means the right coronary artery supplies the posterior descending artery

Annotations:

  • most common. Can also get left dominant and co-dominant
11 Mediastinum of the chest
11.1 superior
11.1.1 Contains
11.1.1.1 Great vessels
11.1.1.2 Trachea
11.1.1.3 Oesophagus
11.1.1.4 Vagus and phrenic nerves
11.1.2 Borders
11.1.2.1 Transverse line from sternal angle to T4/5
11.1.2.2 Pleura
11.1.2.3 Thoracic inlet
11.2 Posterior
11.2.1 Thoracic aorta
11.2.2 Oesophagus
11.2.3 Borders
11.2.3.1 Pericardium (heart)
11.2.3.2 Diaphragm
11.2.3.3 Transverse line between sternal angle and T4/5
11.2.3.4 Pleura
11.2.4 Vagus nerve
11.2.5 Thoracic duct
11.3 Middle
11.3.1 Heart
11.3.2 Right and left main bronchi
11.3.3 Pericardial sac
11.4 Anterior
12 Henderson Hassalbalch equation
12.1 CO2 + H20 > H2CO3 > HCO3- + H+
12.1.1 pH= 6.1 + log10([HCO3-]/0.23x PCO2)
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