Energy Security & the Future

annie
Mind Map by annie, updated more than 1 year ago
annie
Created by annie almost 5 years ago
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A-Level Geography Mind Map on Energy Security & the Future, created by annie on 04/15/2015.

Resource summary

Energy Security & the Future
1 Future Uncertainties
1.1 A glitch in world energy supplies could trigger an economic catastrophe
1.1.1 e.g. Oil - such an event could happen if we have a global rise in oil consumption; we reach 'peak oil' = declining production & rising prices; oil production in fewer countries as sources run dry; OPEC's unpredictable actions & other producer countries
1.2 Factors contributing to global energy uncertainty...
1.2.1 Future performance of global economy
1.2.2 Scale of population growth
1.2.3 Impact of rising living standards
1.2.4 Size of undiscovered oil & gas reserves
1.2.5 Discovery of new energy technologies
1.2.6 The scale of the possible switch to renewable energies
1.2.7 Possible contribution of 'unconventional' oil sources
1.2.8 Emergent economies' energy demands
2 Responses to Increasing Energy Demands
2.1 1. Business as Usual
2.1.1 Do nothing
2.1.2 If we took this path forecasts between now and 2030 suggest...
2.1.2.1 Global primary energy demand will rise by 53% leading to a 55% increase in CO2 emissions
2.1.2.2 Fossil fuels will remain the dominant source of worldwide energy
2.1.2.3 over 70% of the increase in global primary energy demand will come from developing countries, reflecting economic and population growth
2.2 2. Multi-energy Solution
2.2.1 Involves meeting future energy demands from a mixture of renewable, recyclable and non-renewable sources
2.2.2 A rich fuel mix is required to ensure energy security and maintain an affordable supply for individuals and industry.
2.2.2.1 One controversial element: Nuclear power
2.2.2.1.1 Attitudes to Nuclear are shifting in response to dying fossil fuels and climate change
2.2.2.1.2 China & India are building several reactors and intend to increase their nuclear generation capacity in the next 15 years
2.2.2.1.3 By 2008, some 439 nuclear reactors in 31 countries were supplying 15% of the world's electricity, 370 gigawatts p.a.
2.2.2.1.3.1 Estimated that by 2030, this output will increase to 520 gigawatts
2.2.2.1.4 Advantages: no greenhouse emissions; uranium is relatively cheap and easy to mine; most uranium reserves are plentiful and will last for up to 150 years; cost-effective transport as its used in small quantities
2.2.2.1.4.1 Disadvantages: 1986 Chernobyl - designed to be safe but still generate toxic waste in radioactive materials; difficult to manage; expensive, can cost £7 billion to design and build
2.2.2.2 Example: Wind Power
2.2.2.2.1 Produces about 1% of the global electricity supply
2.2.2.2.1.1 Wind energy is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed and clean & can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by replacing fossil fuels as a source of electricity.
2.2.2.2.1.2 Fluctuations in wind speed rarely cause problems when wind power is used to supply a low proportion of total demand
2.2.2.2.1.3 Wind farms have met with local opposition, some believe they are unsightly, make a droning noise and pose a danger to birds
2.2.2.2.2 There's no one source that ticks all the boxes for meeting rising energy demand without increasing emissions but wind power must come close in terms of costs and sustainability
2.2.2.2.2.1 However, it is claimed that most of the UK would be covered by wind farms if they were to completely replace fossil fuels as generators of electricity
2.3 3. Energy Conservation
2.3.1 Based on decreasing the amount of energy used - individuals and organisations that are direct consumers of energy may want to reduce consumption for a number of reasons: to reduce costs; to reduce harmful emissions; to promote energy security on a regional or national scale
2.3.1.1 Energy conservation has been high on the political agenda if the EU in recent years
2.3.1.1.1 Countries have targets to reduce their carbon emissions and cut their energy requirements by increasing efficiency with which energy is consumed
2.3.1.1.1.1 e.g. UK is working towards a zero energy building standard for all new housing by 2016
3 Energy Insecurity & Geopolitical Tensions
3.1 The key to energy security lies in...
3.1.1 making the greatest possible use of domestic sources of energy
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