Education

Gigamuddirr
Mind Map by Gigamuddirr, updated more than 1 year ago
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Education for Development
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Education
1 Pritchett 2013
1.1 Schooling Facts
1.1.1 1) Adult average schooling has tripled between 1950-2010
1.1.2 2) Rapid expansion of schooling - lots of schools being built
1.1.3 3) Even in non-democratic, repressive, corrupt, slow-growing economies, schooling is increasing
1.1.4 4) in 2010, the average Haitian or Bangladeshi had more year of schlooing than the average Frenchman or Italian in 1960.
1.2 PROBLEM!
1.2.1 Learning profiles too flat
1.2.1.1 e.g. Andhra Pradesh, India
1.2.1.1.1 Examined a variety of interventions:
1.2.1.1.1.1 Performance pay
1.2.1.1.1.2 Increasing school grants
1.2.1.1.2 Schools randomly selected for treatment
1.2.1.1.3 Developed test (ASER) to assess student's rote learning and deeper conceptual understanding
1.2.1.1.3.1 ASER test
1.2.1.1.3.1.1 Literacy
1.2.1.1.3.1.2 Numeracy
1.2.1.1.3.1.3 Telling time
1.2.1.1.3.1.4 Handling $$
1.2.1.1.3.1.5 Less than 2/3 of children aged 15-16 mastered all 4 components
1.2.1.1.4 Test student in multiple grades
1.2.1.1.4.1 Produce cross section learning profiles
1.2.1.1.5 RESULTS
1.2.1.1.5.1 FLAT LEARNING PROFILES!
1.2.1.1.5.1.1 e.g. single digit addition
1.2.1.1.5.1.1.1 Grade 2: 35%
1.2.1.1.5.1.1.2 Grade 5: 61%
1.2.1.2 PISA standardised test
1.2.1.2.1 Average Score 2009
1.2.1.2.1.1 OECD: 496
1.2.1.2.1.2 Denmark: 503
1.2.1.2.1.3 Tamil Nadu: 350
1.2.1.2.1.4 Also more students placed in th bottom category in Tamil Nadu
1.2.1.2.2 Sampling was mostly school based
1.2.1.2.2.1 Don't know the learning outcome of children not in school
1.2.1.2.2.1.1 Progress may actually be exaggerated
1.2.1.3 WHY???
1.2.1.3.1 Barriers to universal education
1.2.1.3.1.1 1) current page of educational progress is too slow and unlikely to change because system is centralised
1.2.1.3.1.2 Lack of evidence based planning
1.2.1.3.1.2.1 Only Education Management Information Systems (EMIS) visible goals
1.2.1.3.1.2.1.1 More inputs: books, teachers, buildings, etc.
1.2.1.3.1.2.1.1.1 Perpetuates illusion of progress
1.2.1.3.1.3 Tendency to replicate rich countries' and educational system
1.2.1.3.1.4 Existing systems cannot easily change and flow of innovation unlikely
1.2.1.3.2 Centralised "spider" system - top down approach
1.2.1.3.2.1 Good at logistics and can crank out primary schools quickly
1.2.1.3.2.1.1 But has delivered:
1.2.1.3.2.1.1.1 More schooling
1.2.1.3.2.1.1.2 Resources for marginalised children that are not yet schooled in remote areas
1.2.1.3.2.2 But education needs judgement and control
1.2.1.3.2.2.1 Teaching a child with top down approach may be forcing a round peg into a square hole
1.2.1.3.2.3 Mostly run by government
1.2.1.3.2.3.1 Teachers are mostly civil servants
1.2.1.3.2.4 Nationalisation wave in 1870s -1920s beacuse
1.2.1.3.2.4.1 Increased demand for skilled labour especially during industrial revolution
1.2.1.3.2.4.2 rise of centralising ideologies and nationalisms
1.2.1.3.2.4.3 Mimicry of successful education systems especially in France and Japan
1.2.1.3.2.4.3.1 Why not follow them?
1.2.1.3.2.4.3.1.1 Most OECD achieved current levels before 1970 - used to know how. They now know how to improve but not build from scratch.
1.2.1.3.2.5 Hasn't changed because
1.2.1.3.2.5.1 Camouflage: e.g. hiring building contractors, putting colour in textbooks to gain legitimacy as if they are creating learning
1.2.1.3.2.5.1.1 System perpetuates itself - it is more convenient to be blind/ignorant to parents' concerns
1.2.2 can more spending improve learning outcomes?
1.2.2.1 NO!
1.2.2.1.1 Countries have exactly same learning outcomes with different level of spending
1.2.2.1.1.1 US PPP $105,000 per child
1.2.2.1.1.2 Poland PPP $39,000 per child
1.2.2.1.2 Countries have different learning outcomes with same level of spending
1.2.2.1.2.1 Finland PPP $71,000
1.2.2.1.2.1.1 But Finland outperforms Spain by 50 points on average PISA results
1.2.2.1.2.2 Spain PPP $74,000
1.3 International assessments:
1.3.1 East Asian countries - highest scores
1.3.2 Most OECD clustered around OECD mean of 500 in PISA
1.3.3 Eastern European countries near OECD mean
1.3.4 Most developing countries score around 400 or below
1.4 Solution
1.4.1 "Starfish" bottom up approach
1.4.1.1 Qualities
1.4.1.1.1 Examples
1.4.1.1.1.1 Community controlled schools: Community hired teachers paid 1/5 amount as civil service teacher but produce equivalent or better learning outcomes. E.g. Andhra Pradesh
1.4.1.1.1.2 Private Providers of education like in Kenya (Bold et al. 2011)
1.4.1.1.1.3 Schools under small governmental jurisdiction
1.4.1.1.1.4 Putting cameras in classrooms and have teachers take date-time stamped photos >> increase student attendance and scores in India (Duflo, Hanna and Ryan 2010)
1.4.1.1.2 Open
1.4.1.1.2.1 have many different types of schools providing education instead of only having schools under spider control
1.4.1.1.3 Locally operated
1.4.1.1.3.1 Given autonomy to operate
1.4.1.1.4 Performance pressure on learning through accountability
1.4.1.1.5 professionally networked
1.4.1.1.5.1 communities of professional practice
1.4.1.1.6 Flexibly financed
1.4.1.1.6.1 finance follows students and performance rather than mainly being directed at the teachers, independent of performance
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