2.1.1 Wanted to end 'capitalist economic system', felt it was corrupt and damaged
beyond all repair from SMC. Looked towards Soviet Union as good economic
planning as it appeared unaffected.
2.1.2 Very little impact, lack of popular support, general fear and suspicion of
2.2 Dr Francis Townsend
2.2.1 Put forward that all those over 60 should receive a monthly
pension of $200 if spent within 30 days. Half a million old people
supported Townsend and it was proposed in the House of
2.2.2 Although not passed, a scaled down version was adopted through the
Social Security Act 1935.
2.3 Father Charles Coughlin
2.3.1 Initial supporter, criticised FDR through his radio show with 35 million listeners.
Accused FDR of being influenced by major bankers. Called for nationalisation of
industry, inflationary and measures to be implemented, and greater use of
silver coinage. He became more anti-semitic in his views, criticising Henry
Morgenthau, and comments were made favouring fascist governments of Hitler
126.96.36.199 As America entered WW2 his broadcasts were brought to an end by National Board of
Broadcasters, and told by Catholic Church to cease political activities or face being
'defrocked'. So very little impact.
2.4 Huey P. Long
2.4.1 Critic from within the party. Launched 'Share Our Wealth' campaign in 1934 and promoted $5000
homestead allowance and a minimum wage of $2500 a year. Financed by increasing income and
inheritance tax on the rich, 1% per $1 million up to $8 million; over that and taxed 100%. This would cost
FDR support of some BB.
188.8.131.52 Had significant support within working class and considered a serious challenger in the 1936 election.
However, was assassinated in 1935 by Carl Weiss.
3 Opposition from the right
3.1 Republican Party
3.1.1 Felt government intervention had gone too far, un-American and socialist in nature.
3.1.2 However the 1936 elections had brought democratic dominance to both
House of Congress and Republican challenger, Alfred Langdon, a poor
political opponent. Making Republicans largely ineffective.
3.2 State Legislatures
3.2.1 Especially in the South. When the ND provided assistance
to black southerners and FDR's wife, Eleanor, spoke out
against racial discrimination, white southerners believed
the ND was a threat to states' rights and supremacy in
3.3 Big Business
3.3.1 ND gave greater union organisation and right to
collective bargaining, business leaders were outraged.
They also opposed greater control over trade.
184.108.40.206 BB often challenged through the courts, often with success, which
caused him to refine policies.
3.4 Liberty League
3.4.1 Made up of republican politicians, industrialists and members of
FRD's own party, i.e. Al Smith. The main aim was to uphold the
constitution towards the ND and make sure not too much power
was given to the president
220.127.116.11 Challenged in 1936 but failed
by a large margin and
collapsed. However, probably
the most notable opponent on
4 Opposition from the Supreme Court
4.1 Many policies between 1933 and 1937 were
successfully challenged in the Supreme
4.2 Roosevelt tried to stop this by appointing Supreme Court Justices who
favourable towards him in court packing scheme. This failed and
damaged his reputation in Congress.
4.2.1 General impact of
the Supreme Court
was during the 2nd
ND, legislation was
drafted much more
carefully in order to
avoid being declared
being struck down.
4.2.2 AAA: provided payments to farmed to stop
producing certain crops, financed by taxes
imposed on processors. Butler, a processor,
refused to pay the fine and was taken to
court. He claimed that the tax may not be
used to transfer wealth from one to another.
The Supreme court agreed and struck down
the AAA 1933 as unconstitutional.
4.3 However, there was a change in mood in the Supreme Court. It
upheld a minimum wage Act passed by Washington and upheld the
Wagner Act 1935. The Wagner Act established the National Labor
Relations Board to protect the rights of workers to organise, bargain
collectively and strike. As a result, the 2nd ND did not suffer the
same fate as the first with the Supreme Court.