Opposition to the New Deal

soph_harvey
Mind Map by soph_harvey, updated more than 1 year ago
soph_harvey
Created by soph_harvey almost 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Opposition to the New Deal, created by soph_harvey on 04/18/2015.

Resource summary

Opposition to the New Deal
1 Opposition:
1.1 The left of Roosevelt's Democratic Party
1.2 Socialists
1.3 Communists
1.4 Right Wing conservative Republicans
1.5 Supreme Court
1.6 Big Business
1.7 Liberty League
2 Opposition from the left
2.1 Socialists and communists
2.1.1 Wanted to end 'capitalist economic system', felt it was corrupt and damaged beyond all repair from SMC. Looked towards Soviet Union as good economic planning as it appeared unaffected.
2.1.2 Very little impact, lack of popular support, general fear and suspicion of communism.
2.2 Dr Francis Townsend
2.2.1 Put forward that all those over 60 should receive a monthly pension of $200 if spent within 30 days. Half a million old people supported Townsend and it was proposed in the House of Representatives.
2.2.2 Although not passed, a scaled down version was adopted through the Social Security Act 1935.
2.3 Father Charles Coughlin
2.3.1 Initial supporter, criticised FDR through his radio show with 35 million listeners. Accused FDR of being influenced by major bankers. Called for nationalisation of industry, inflationary and measures to be implemented, and greater use of silver coinage. He became more anti-semitic in his views, criticising Henry Morgenthau, and comments were made favouring fascist governments of Hitler and Mussolini.
2.3.1.1 As America entered WW2 his broadcasts were brought to an end by National Board of Broadcasters, and told by Catholic Church to cease political activities or face being 'defrocked'. So very little impact.
2.4 Huey P. Long
2.4.1 Critic from within the party. Launched 'Share Our Wealth' campaign in 1934 and promoted $5000 homestead allowance and a minimum wage of $2500 a year. Financed by increasing income and inheritance tax on the rich, 1% per $1 million up to $8 million; over that and taxed 100%. This would cost FDR support of some BB.
2.4.1.1 Had significant support within working class and considered a serious challenger in the 1936 election. However, was assassinated in 1935 by Carl Weiss.
3 Opposition from the right
3.1 Republican Party
3.1.1 Felt government intervention had gone too far, un-American and socialist in nature.
3.1.2 However the 1936 elections had brought democratic dominance to both House of Congress and Republican challenger, Alfred Langdon, a poor political opponent. Making Republicans largely ineffective.
3.2 State Legislatures
3.2.1 Especially in the South. When the ND provided assistance to black southerners and FDR's wife, Eleanor, spoke out against racial discrimination, white southerners believed the ND was a threat to states' rights and supremacy in the South.
3.3 Big Business
3.3.1 ND gave greater union organisation and right to collective bargaining, business leaders were outraged. They also opposed greater control over trade.
3.3.1.1 BB often challenged through the courts, often with success, which caused him to refine policies.
3.4 Liberty League
3.4.1 Made up of republican politicians, industrialists and members of FRD's own party, i.e. Al Smith. The main aim was to uphold the constitution towards the ND and make sure not too much power was given to the president
3.4.1.1 Challenged in 1936 but failed by a large margin and collapsed. However, probably the most notable opponent on the right.
4 Opposition from the Supreme Court
4.1 Many policies between 1933 and 1937 were successfully challenged in the Supreme Court.
4.2 Roosevelt tried to stop this by appointing Supreme Court Justices who favourable towards him in court packing scheme. This failed and damaged his reputation in Congress.
4.2.1 General impact of the Supreme Court was during the 2nd ND, legislation was drafted much more carefully in order to avoid being declared unconstitutional and being struck down.
4.2.2 AAA: provided payments to farmed to stop producing certain crops, financed by taxes imposed on processors. Butler, a processor, refused to pay the fine and was taken to court. He claimed that the tax may not be used to transfer wealth from one to another. The Supreme court agreed and struck down the AAA 1933 as unconstitutional.
4.3 However, there was a change in mood in the Supreme Court. It upheld a minimum wage Act passed by Washington and upheld the Wagner Act 1935. The Wagner Act established the National Labor Relations Board to protect the rights of workers to organise, bargain collectively and strike. As a result, the 2nd ND did not suffer the same fate as the first with the Supreme Court.
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