Waves & the Earth

larissa.hayden08
Mind Map by larissa.hayden08, updated more than 1 year ago
larissa.hayden08
Created by larissa.hayden08 almost 5 years ago
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physics unit 1 topic 4
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Waves & the Earth
1 P1.18 Infrasound
1.1 frequencies
1.1.1 humans hear between 20Hz-20,000Hz
1.1.2 infrasound - below 20Hz
1.2 uses
1.2.1 communication between animals
1.2.1.1 e.g. whales&elephants
1.2.2 detecting animal movement in remote location
1.2.3 detecting volcanoes&meteors
1.3 calculations
2 P1.19 Ultrasound
2.1 frequencies
2.1.1 ultrasound - above 20,000Hz
2.2 uses
2.2.1 sonar
2.2.1.1 find depth of water below boat
2.2.2 communication between animals
2.2.2.1 e.g. bats&dolphins
2.2.3 foetal scanning
2.3 calculations
3 P1.20 Seismic Waves
3.1 P&S waves
3.1.1 caused by earthquakes+explosions
3.1.2 P waves=longitudinal
3.1.2.1 faster
3.1.2.2 travel through liquids+solids
3.1.3 S waves=transverse
3.1.3.1 slower
3.1.3.2 travel through solids
3.1.4 detected by seismometres
3.2 reflection&refraction
3.2.1 seismic waves reflected&refracted
3.2.1.1 at boundaries between crust,mantle+core
4 P1.22 Detecting Earthquakes
4.1 hard to predict when
4.1.1 unsure of size of forces acting on tectonic plates
4.1.2 unsure of amount of friction on plates
4.2 locating earthquakes
4.2.1 1. many seismometers detect P&S waves
4.2.2 2. P=faster so arrives first
4.2.2.1 greater difference in time between waves=greater difference between seismometer+earthquake
4.2.3 3. scientists work out distance from each seismometer
4.2.3.1 find out where earthquake happened
4.2.4 at least 3 seismometers used
4.3 causes of earthquakes
4.3.1 1. tectonic plates move due to convection currents in mantle
4.3.2 2. plates slide past each other
4.3.3 3. friction-don't slide smoothly
4.3.4 4. forces build up till part of plate breaks
4.3.5 5. plates move with sudden jerk-earthquake!
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