TCP/IP Layer 4 Protocols

Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

CCENT 5.Fundamentals of TCP/IP Transport and Applications Mind Map on TCP/IP Layer 4 Protocols, created by jce299792458 on 10/05/2013.

Created by jce299792458 about 6 years ago
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TCP/IP Layer 4 Protocols
1 Features
1.1 Multiplexing using ports
1.1.1 Function that allows receiving hosts to choose the correct application for which the data is destined, based on the port number. IP address,Transport protocol, Port number (, TCP, port 80) Hosts typically allocate dynamic port numbers starting at 1024 because the ports below 1024 are reserved for well-known applications. 20 TCP, FTP data 21 TCP,FTP control 22 TCP, SSH 23 TCP, Telnet 53 UDP, TCP, DNS TCP for Zone Transfer UDP for DNS Queries 25 TCP, SMTP 67,68 UDP, DHCP UDP port 67 for sending data to the server, and UDP port 68 for data to the client 69 UDP, TFTP 80 TCP, HTTP (WWW) 110 TCP, POP3 161 UDP, SNMP 443 TCP, SSL
1.2 Error recovery (reliability)
1.2.1 Process of numbering and acknowledging data with Sequence and Acknowledgment header fields.
1.3 Flow control using windowing
1.3.1 Process that uses window sizes to protect buffer space and routing devices from being overloaded with traffic.
1.4 Connection establishment and termination
1.4.1 Process used to initialize port numbers and Sequence and Acknowledgment fields.
1.5 Ordered data transfer and data segmentation
1.5.1 Continuous stream of bytes from an upper-layer process that is “segmented” for transmission and delivered to upper-layer processes at the receiving device, with the bytes in the same order.
2 Transmission Control Protocol
2.1 Provides error recovery
2.1.1 Relies on IP for end-to-end delivery of the data, including routing issues
2.2 using 2 bits inside the flag fields of the TCP header. Called the SYN and ACK flags
2.2.1 SYN means “synchronize the sequence numbers” a three-way handshake must complete before data transfer can begin. SYN, DPORT=80, SPORT=1027 SYN, ACK, DPORT=1027, SPORT=80 ACK, DPORT=80, SPORT=1027 TCP Connection Termination Four-way termination sequence
2.3 Connection-oriented protocol
2.3.1 Requires an exchange of messages before data transfer begins, or that has a required preestablished correlation between two endpoints
3 User Datagram Protocol
3.1 Does not perform error recovery
3.2 Connectionless protocol
3.2.1 Does not require an exchange of messages and that does not require a preestablished correlation between two endpoints
4 QoS
4.1 Bandwidth
4.1.1 The volume of bits per second needed for the application to work well
4.2 Delay
4.2.1 The amount of time it takes one IP packet to flow from sender to receiver
4.3 Jitter
4.3.1 The variation in delay
4.4 Loss
4.4.1 The percentage of packets discarded by the network before they reach the destination, which when using TCP, requires a retransmission.

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