Mind Map by hejatayeb, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by hejatayeb almost 5 years ago


Studies about the three

Resource summary

1 Gesture
1.1 Evaluation
1.1.1 Positives + The study shows how gestures can be universal while others are culturally diverse. + High ecological validity because observations were made while they carried out their normal lifestyles.
1.1.2 Negatives - They might have interpreted their gestures prove their hypothesis
1.2 Study
1.2.1 Saitz et al. (1972) Aim: To compare the use of gestures in the US, Columbia and Africa. Method: Observations were made of gestures used in these cultures. Results: 65% of gestures used in America and 73% of gestures used in Columbia were also used in 4 African countries. These gestures included: pointing, shrugging and nodding. Conclusion: Therefore, many gestures are universal.
2 Touch
2.1 Study
2.1.1 Fisher, Rytting and Heslin (1976) Aim: To see the effect of touch on people's attitudes. Method: Female students in a library were handed books by a librarian who was a confederate of the researcher. Half of the students were touched on the hand by the librarian while the others weren't touched at all. Results: When questioned later, students who were touched had a much more positive attitude towards the library and the librarian than those who weren't touched. The students were unaware they had been touched. Conclusion: Touch can be unconscious and can have a positive effect on one's positive attitude.
2.2 Evaluation
2.2.1 Positives + It only used females so that the touch wasn't misinterpreted by the male as sexual inuendo.
2.2.2 Negatives - The study was gender biased because it only used females so it could not be generalised to male, thus making it unreliable.
3 Tone Of Voice
3.1 Study
3.1.1 Argyle, Alkema, and Gilmore (1971) Aim: To see if tone of voice has an effect when interpreting a verbal message. Method: In artificial condtions listened to either friendly or hostile messages spoken in either friendly or hostile tone of voices. Therefore, some participants heard a hostile message spoken in a friendly tone of voice and others heard a friendly message spoken in a friendly tone of voice. Results: When participants were asked to interpret the messages, it was found that the tone of voice had about 5 times the effect of the verbal message itself. Conclusion: Tone of voice is extremely important in how people interpret verbal messages.
3.2 Evaluation
3.2.1 Postitves + It is high in control as its low in ecological validity.
3.2.2 Negatives - Low in ecological validity meaning that it was done in a lab and can hence not be related to real life.
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