Cosmological Argument

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The Cosmological Argument - HL Philosophy

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Cosmological Argument
  1. A posteriori
    1. knowledge gained 'after experience'
      1. in this case, experience of the universe & world
    2. 3 premises
      1. Everything that exists has a cause
        1. The universe exists, so must have a cause
          1. That cause is God
      2. Aquinas
        1. Ways to prove God
          1. 1. Change/motion: Things do not change without a cause
            1. It is necessary to arrive at a first mover affected by no other: God
            2. 2. Cause: There must be a chain of causes, the first being God
              1. It is necessary to admit a first efficient cause: God
              2. 3.Contingency: A future event that is not certain, dependent on something else
                1. Everything is contingent, there must have been something that is non-contingent
                  1. A necessary being
              3. Infinite regress: an infinite number of events in the past
                1. rejected: said there must be a first event
              4. Aristotle
                1. Potentiality & Actuality
                  1. Aristotle was interested in the move from potentiality to actuality: Everything actualised has 4 causes
                    1. 4. final
                      1. The aim for which something is created
                        1. The prime mover only has a Final Cause???
                      2. 3. efficient
                        1. The way in which something is created
                        2. 2. formal
                          1. The expression, idea or plan that lead to the creation of something
                          2. 1.material
                            1. Everything has a material from which it was made
                          3. Actuality: When potential is achieved
                            1. Potentiality: the possibility of doing/becoming something
                            2. There must be a mover as all movement depends on a mover
                              1. Prime Mover
                                1. Immune to change, decay, death
                                  1. independent of a mover (unmoved mover)
                                  2. Observe the world: we see movement & growth
                                2. Russell
                                  1. supported infinite regress, rejected necessary being & contingency
                                    1. The Brute Fact: The universe just IS.
                                      1. We can't understand/explain the universe fully
                                        1. Therefore shouldn't ask questions about it
                                          1. Because the answer would be meaningless (wouldn't understand it)
                                      2. Fallacy of Composition
                                        1. Falsely ascribing the properties of the parts of a whole to the whole
                                          1. eg: things in the universe were created so the universe was also created.
                                      3. The Roles of God
                                        1. an explanation (the fact that there is something rather than nothing needs an explanation)
                                          1. The sustainer of motion, causation & existence
                                            1. cause in esse
                                            2. God as the temporal first cause (at the beginning of time)
                                              1. Cause in esse: brings things into existence, must be involved for continuation
                                                1. Cause in fieri: brings things into existence but no longer involved
                                              2. Scientific Theories
                                                1. Anthony Kenny
                                                  1. Animals move themselves
                                                    1. Newtons 1st Law of Motion
                                                      1. A body's velocity will remain unchanged unless a force acts upon it
                                                        1. friction, gravity
                                                          1. without gravity we would be in constant motion
                                                          2. Things stop us moving as apposed to starting movement
                                                    2. steady state theory
                                                      1. energy can't be created: universe will always weigh & look the same, is eternal
                                                      2. Big Bang Theory (rejection of steady state)
                                                        1. Was there a cause for it though?
                                                          1. Could be spontaneous
                                                        2. Kalam Cosmological Argument
                                                          1. Whatever begins to exist has a cause, the universe began to exist
                                                            1. Universe can't be infinite if running out of usable energy
                                                              1. A universe that is expanding must have a starting point
                                                                1. spaceless, timeless, uncaused, immaterial, powerful
                                                              2. EXTRAS
                                                                1. Kant: NO because we don't know cause & effect are related (illusion)
                                                                  1. circular logic: if God is first cause, what caused God?
                                                                    1. Doesn't point to the classical theist God
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