The ELT Curriculum: A Flexible
Model for a Changing World.
1.1 Language is communication, and as teachers we must develop
in our learners the ability to communicate effectively in a wide
range of professional and social contexts.
2.1 Applied linguistics, a similar
definition of curriculum is
proposed by Richards, Platt
and Platt :
2.1.1 a. the educational purposes of the programme (the
2.1.2 b. The content, teaching procedures and learning
experiences which will be necessary to achieve this
purpose (the means)
2.1.3 c. some means for assessing whether or not the
educational ends have been achieved
2.1.4 The participants within the curriculum design
188.8.131.52 The planners.
184.108.40.206 The administrators.
220.127.116.11 The teachers.
18.104.22.168 The learners.
3 MODELS OF CURRICULUM PLANNING
3.1 The three traditions
are identified as:
3.1.1 Classical Humanism.
4 THE CONTENT MODEL: CLASSICAL HUMANISM
4.1 The attraction of the model is that it provides:
4.1.1 3. Accountability
4.1.2 1. Clarity of goals
4.1.3 2. Ease of evaluation
5 THE OBJECTIVES MODEL: RECONSTRUCTIONISM
5.1 The purpose of education from the point of view of the process
model is to enable the individual to progress towards self-fulfilment.
5.2 “communicative revolution” and a period of “piecemeal reconstruction”, is now characterised
by “a growing interest in the curriculum process as a whole, attempts to put language teaching
back in touch with educational theory in general and curriculum studies in particular”
5.3 Johnson refers to the communicative ‘revolution’, and a revolution cannot
be achieved without a certain degree of chaos before reconstruction
6 THE PROCESS MODEL: PROGRESSIVISM
6.1 Kelly sums:
6.1.1 the fact that neither offers any real help with that decision which must precede all others, namely
the choice of content and/or aims and objectives
7 THE ‘NEW PRAGMATISM’: A MIXED-FOCUS CURRICULUM
7.1 CURRICULUM POLICY
7.1.1 NEEDS ANALYSIS
22.214.171.124 SYLLABUS DESIGN
126.96.36.199.1.1 Of curriculum planning and implementation, and involve all participants. The primary
purpose of evaluation is to determine whether or not the curriculum goals have been met
188.8.131.52.2.1 Interaction between the teacher and the learners in the classroom, and on the
teaching approaches, activities, materials and procedures employed by the teacher.
184.108.40.206 Brindley suggests that two orientations are now generally recognised:
220.127.116.11.1 1. A narrow, product-oriented view of needs which focuses on the language
necessary for particular future purposes and is carried out by the ‘experts’
18.104.22.168.2 2. A broad, process-oriented view of needs which takes into account factors such as learner
motivation and learning styles as well as learner-defined target language behaviour
7.2 Dubin and Olshtain, three areas are central to
the concept of a communicative curriculum:
7.2.1 a humanistic approach in education
7.2.2 a cognitively based view of language learning
7.2.3 a view of the nature of language as
seen by the field of .sociolinguistics
8.1 The language teaching profession has yet to embrace curriculum
development as an overall approach to the planning of teaching and learning.