Heart disease

shannon.bates
Mind Map by shannon.bates, updated more than 1 year ago
shannon.bates
Created by shannon.bates over 6 years ago
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heart disease

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Heart disease
  1. Atheroma
    1. Begins as fatty streaks which are deposits of white blood cells that have taken up low density lipoproteins
      1. These streaks enlarge to form an irregular patch, or athermanous plaque
        1. Athermanous plaques are made up of cholesterol, fibres and dead muscle cells
    2. Thrombosis
      1. If an Atheroma breaks through the endothelium of the blood vessel, it forms a rough surface that interrupts the otherwise smooth flow of blood
        1. This may cause a thrombus (blood clot), which will stop the flow of blood
          1. The region of tissue deprived of blood due to the thrombus will not be able to respire as a result of no oxygen, glucose and other nutrients being transported to the tissue
      2. Aneurysm
        1. Atheromas that form thrombosis can weaken artery wall, causing them to swell to form a balloon like, blood filled structure called an aneurysm
        2. Myocardial infarction
          1. Occurs when the heart stops beating, otherwise known as a heart attack
          2. Smoking
            1. Carbon monoxide combines easily, but irreversibly with haemoglobin, thus reducing the oxygen carry capability of the blood. In order to supply tissue with the same amount of oxygen the heart must work harder, thereby increasing blood pressure
              1. Nicotine stimulates the production of adrenalin which will increase heart rate and blood pressure
              2. Blood pressure
                1. If the blood pressure in the arteries is high, the heart must work harder to pump blood into them
                  1. High blood pressure in the arteries means there is more chance of an aneurysm forming and bursting causing a haemorrhage
                    1. To resist the high pressure the walls of the arteries tend to become thickened and may harden, restricting blood flow
                2. Blood choletserol
                  1. High density lipoproteins remove cholesterol from tissue and transport it to the liver for excretion
                    1. They help protect arteries against heart disease
                    2. Low density lipoproteins which transport cholesterol from the liver to the tissue, including the artery walls, which they infiltrate, leading to the development of Atheroma and hence a heart attack
                    3. Diet
                      1. High levels of salt raise blood pressure
                        1. High levels of saturated fat increase low density lipoprotein levels and hence blood cholesterol concentration
                          1. Foods that act as antioxidants, e.g. vitamin c, reduce the risk of heart disease, and so does non-starch polysaccharide (dietary fibre)
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